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1986 
Exxon 
International 
Exhibition 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/anglesofvisionfrOOdenn 



Solomon R. Guggenheim 

Mu?^'. ! " i ' rarv 



Angles of Vision 
French Art Today 

1986 Exxon International Exhibition 



by Lisa Dennison 



This exhibition is sponsored by Exxon Corporation. 
Additional support for the exhibition, which coincides 
with the centennial celebration of the Statue of Liberty, 
has been received from the Association Francaise 
d'Action Artistique. 



Lenders to the 
Exhibition 



Martine Aballea 

Bijan Aalam, Paris 

Judith Bartolani 

Marie-Claude Beaud 

Marie Bourget 

Farideh Cadot 

Jean-Frangois and Francoise Echard, Paris 

Bernard Faucon 

Philippe Favier 

Michel Makarius, Paris 

Patrick Tosani 

Ethan J. & Sherry Remez Wagner, Sacramento, 

California 

Musee Cantini, Marseille 

Fondation Cartier pour I'Art Contemporain, 

Jouy-en-Josas 

Fonds National d'Art Contemporain, Paris 

F.R.A.C. Rhones-Alpes, Lyon 

Musee Departemental de Rochechouart, Limoges 

Musee de Toulon 

Georges Pompidou Art and Culture Foundation, 

New York 

Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris 

Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York 

Galerie Claire Burrus, Paris 

Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 

Castelli Graphics, New York 

Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, Paris 

Galerie de Paris 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Dennison, Lisa. 
Angles of vision. 

"Thisexhibition is sponsored by Exxon Corporation. 
Additional support for the exhibition, which coincides 
with the centennial celebration of the Statue of Liberty, 
has been received from the Association francaise 
d'action artistique." "Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York." 

Includes bibliographies. 

1. Conceptual art— France— Exhibitions. 2. Art, 
French— Exhibitions. 3. Art, Modern— 20th century- 
France— Exhibitions. 4. Artists— France— Biography. 
I. Exxon Corporation. II. Association francaise 
d'action artistique. III. Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum. IV. Title. 



N6848.5.C66D46 1986 

86-21979 

ISBN 0-89207-058-7 



709'.44'07401471 



Table of Contents 



4 Preface and Acknowledgements 
Thomas M. Messer 

6 Angles of Vision: French Art Today 
Lisa Dennison 

Catalogue 

Essays by Lisa Dennison 

12 Martine Aballea 

28 Richard Baquie 

44 Judith Bartolani 

58 Marie Bourget 

70 Bernard Faucon 

82 Philippe Favier 

96 Ange Leccia 

110 Georges Rousse 

126 Patrick Tosani 

140 Daniel Tremblay 

154 Photographic Credits 



Preface and 
Acknowledgements 



When the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation ap- 
proached Exxon Corporation for financial support in 
the late 1970s, it was mutually agreed that the an- 
nual exhibition program would alternate between na- 
tional and international presentations. Accordingly, 
we have observed and reported on current artistic 
developments in Britain, Italy and Australia, deciding 
each time that the creative activity and. in particular, 
the aspect concerned with its youthful production in 
the country of our choosing deserve special atten- 
tion. The time has now come to revisit France and 
to offer a selection that, like the previous ones, does 
not attempt more than the projection of a personal 
view developed through repeated and conscientious 
efforts to grasp the meaning of the current artistic 
scene. 

Angles of Vision: French Art Today is thus pro- 
vided with the usual qualifying subtitles that are 
meant to limit pretentions rather than indicate tenta- 
tiveness on our part; for the Museum continues to 
hold to its longstanding convictions about the effec- 
tiveness of a single selector, in this case Lisa Den- 
nison. the Guggenheim's Assistant Curator. For the 
current show she has chosen ten artists who, ex- 
pressing themselves in a variety of media, impressed 
her with the freshness, the conviction and the au- 
thenticity of their work. 

The thanks of the Guggenheim Foundation are 
therefore extended, in the first instance, to Lisa Den- 
nison. to her aides within and outside the Museum 
and to the artists, whose understanding and coop- 
eration were essential for the successful comple- 
tion of the project. That Exxon has continued its 
support over the years, often in the face of the criti- 
cism that almost inevitably befalls contemporary 
art selections, is to the Corporation's credit. It is 



equally appropriate to express our appreciation to 
the Association Francaise d'Action Artistique, espe- 
cially Yves Mabin, for contributing to this under- 
taking. Jean-Marie Guehenno, his successor. Marc 
Perrin de Brichambault. and Patrick Talbot at the 
French Consulate in New York have also been ex- 
tremely helpful, and their efforts are gratefully ac- 
knowledged herewith. 

Angles of Vision: French Art Today takes place in 
the year in which we celebrate the centennial of the 
Statue of Liberty. And while it is not our intention to 
burden the participants in the exhibition with co- 
incidental responsibilities, the timing of the Exxon 
presentation may nevertheless be interpreted as the 
Guggenheim's solidarity with American and particu- 
larly with New York museums that felt impelled to 
salute the historic occasion. 

Thomas M. Messer. Director 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 



Among the many individuals whose collaboration 
was essential to the realization of this exhibition, I 
would like to single out Diane Waldman, Deputy Di- 
rector, for her valuable advice on all phases of this 
project and for sharing her insights on contempo- 
rary French art with me; Diana Murphy, Editorial 
Coordinator, for her very skillful and conscientious 
editing of the catalogue; Carol Fuerstein, Editor, for 
her indispensable contribution to the publication as 
well; and Lisa Yokana, former Curatorial Assistant, 
and Nina Nathan Schroeder, Curatorial Assistant, 
for helping with the preparation of the show. 

Sincere thanks are due to the many gallery deal- 
ers for their gracious cooperation, including Claire 
Burrus, Gabrielle Bryers, Farideh Cadot, Antoinette 
Castelli, Gerard Delsol, Michel Durand-Dessert, Eric 
Fabre, Catherine Issert, Marie-Helene Montenay and 
Jean-Frangois Taddei. Among the numerous mu- 
seum directors and curators who introduced me to 
artists in their regions, and whose guidance and 
hospitality were most generous, I gratefully acknowl- 
edge Daniel Abadie, Marie-Claude Beaud, Bernard 
Blistene, Michel Bourel, Bernard Ceysson, Chantal 
Creste, Jean-Louis Froment, Frangoise Guichon, 
Marie-Claude Jeune, Franz Kaiser and Suzanne 
Page. Other individuals whose assistance must be 
recognized include Ben, Victoire Buff, Catherine 
Ferbos, Manuela Masquelier, Juliette Salzmann, 
Genevieve Gallot and Vivienne Warszawski. A spe- 
cial acknowledgment is extended to those who have 
kindly lent works to the exhibition. And finally, I 
would like to thank the artists themselves for their 
enthusiastic commitment to all aspects of this show. 

L.D. 



Angles of Vision 
French Art Today 



by Lisa Dennison 



During the early 1980s in France, no movement 
emerged to rival the Neo-Expressionist style of Italy, 
Germany and the United States in terms of its inter- 
national acceptance and influence; nor were French 
artists associated with this vanguard. Only a few 
isolated individuals from France achieved recog- 
nition on an international scale in the earlier years 
of this decade. Indeed, the small number of French 
participants in the major group exhibitions of con- 
temporary art is a significant indicator of how little 
exposure recent French artists have received. For 
example, not one French artist was included among 
the younger exhibitors in The Royal Academy of 
Art's A New Spirit in Painting of 1981. Gerard Ga- 
rouste was the only Frenchman among forty-six 
artists in the 1982 Berlin show Zeitgeist. That same 
year at Documenta 7, there were six French repre- 
sentatives among the 173 exhibitors; similarly, only 
eight out of 166 artists in The Museum of Modern 
Art's An International Survey of Painting and Sculp- 
ture of 1984 were French.' Most recently, the French 
found themselves without a participant in the 7985 
Carnegie International, and they fared only slightly 
better at home: in the Nouvelle Biennale de Paris 
'85, only twenty out of 120 artists were natives. 

France's isolation from the international scene is 
not a recent phenomenon in the history of postwar 
art. After peace was restored in Europe, it was ex- 
pected that Paris would remain the preeminent in- 
ternational art center and that the French masters, 
such as Picasso, Braque, Matisse and Leger, would 
continue to influence succeeding generations of art- 
ists worldwide. Yet many of the younger School of 
Paris artists remained rooted in tradition, while their 
counterparts in the burgeoning New York School 
were revolutionizing painting. Indeed, against the 



strength of the innovations of the Abstract Expres- 
sionists, French artists could no longer sustain Paris 
as the art capital of the Western world. A rapid suc- 
cession of stimulating and prodigious movements of 
American art. including Pop Art, Color-Field Paint- 
ing, Minimalism and Conceptualism exerted a 
powerful influence on European artists. This influ- 
ence was for the most part not reciprocated by the 
French through the seventies. However, the sixties 
were marked by intense creative activity in France, 
and the impact of a number of individual French 
artists was felt in the United States during this 
decade. 

The sixties in France were characterized by a 
diversity of artistic exploration. Geometric abstrac- 
tion continued to flourish, and the investigation of 
movement, optical effects and light also gained new 
impetus, not only in France but worldwide. The dom- 
inant tendency of the period was Le Nouveau Rea- 
lisme; this term had been coined by art critic Pierre 
Restany in 1960 to describe the work of a group of 
artists, including Yves Klein, Arman, Jean Tinguely, 
Daniel Spoerri and Cesar, who appropriated exist- 
ing objects, particularly found materials from the 
urban environment, to make ironic comments on 
contemporary society. As Restany described their 
objective, "The act of pure appropriation is imme- 
diate; it aspires neither to the transcription nor the 
conceptualization of the object. By the sole fact of 
this gesture, the object transcends its quotidian and 
trivial existence and at the same time is liberated, 
thus attaining its full expressive autonomy...." 2 
The purity that Restany speaks of was soon aban- 
doned, however, as the artists altered their objects 
according to the aesthetic principles of their indi- 
vidual styles; and the broad range of interests of 



these artists insured that their work thrived in an 
international context. Indeed, because of its rela- 
tionship to Pop Art, with which it shared a concern 
with the world of objects and everyday events, as 
well as to the tradition of assemblage, Le Nouveau 
Realisme was highly regarded in the United States. 

In contrast, the impact abroad of the Support/ 
Surface movement of the seventies was slight. The . 
French avant-garde of this decade took a more re- 
flective stance in their art and thought. One of the 
persistent characteristics of postwar French art in 
general has been the element of theoretical dis- 
course that is carried on in concert with the cre- 
ative act. A contributing factor to the sustained 
interest in such discourse has been the impressive 
roster of intellectuals active in France during this 
period, including Jean-Paul Sartre, Claude Levi- 
Strauss and Roland Barthes, whose writings have 
influenced the aesthetic preoccupations of younger 
artists. Structuralism, which gained popularity in 
the late sixties, was an especially strong current in 
Paris, particularly because of the privileged position 
accorded language and semiotics in French culture. 
In the search for a broader visual means of expres- 
sion, artists and critics alike called upon semantics 
to analyze the role of art in the perception of reality. 

The Support/Surface movement of 1969 to 1972 
can be seen as an elaboration of these structuralist 
ideas. Though the movement itself was short-lived, 
its practitioners, among them Claude Viallat, Louis 
Cane, Daniel Dezeuze and Frangois Rouan, contin- 
ued to be active throughout the seventies. Their 
works were characterized by the repetition of shapes 
and colors on large unstretched canvases or other 
supports. As Otto Hahn wrote: "The structuralist 
trend of painting in France ... analyzes color, 



brushstroke and composition. A painting becomes 
no more than canvas in the sense that it is no longer 
nailed to a stretcher but merely pinned to the wall. 
Any reference to illusion or staging was rejected. 
The important questions concerned the painting 
itself, its mode of production, the elaboration of 
codes, the relationship between the work and the 
wall from which it hangs." 3 

The group known as B.M.P.T., formed by Daniel 
Buren, Olivier Mosset, Michel Parmentier and Niele 
Toroni, also adopted a more materialistic position 
with regard to their art. In rigorously minimal works 
they rejected the concept of art as illusion, main- 
taining that painting leads to no other reality than 
its own existence. Though B.M.P.T. was active only 
briefly, from 1966 to 1967, Buren's reputation devel- 
oped on both sides of the Atlantic, based on his 
association with the international movements of 
Minimalism and Conceptualism. His signature works 
of alternating white and colored 8.7-centimeter-wide 
stripes acquire form and meaning from the contexts 
in which they are placed. In its dialectical rapport 
between the aesthetic sign and its environment, 
Buren's art questions the meaning of physical and 
mental structures, both tangible and intangible, en- 
compassing the realms of history, politics, archi- 
tecture and social institutions. 

Jean Le Gac and Christian Boltanski are two other 
artists of the seventies whose works have concep- 
tual underpinnings. Though their work has been tre- 
mendously influential in France, in particular on the 
younger generation of artists, it has not reached a 
wide audience, possibly because of the private and 
hermetic nature of their particular forms of expres- 
sion. In addition, the two were working at a time 
when no movement, either in Europe or the United 



States, achieved international preeminence. Both 
Boltanski and Le Gac use photography (Le Gac 
adds drawings and texts) and seek to reconstruct 
their own histories through memory. They explore 
the ambiguous relationship between art and reality, 
intending to prove that in the failure of representa- 
tion to re-present the lived reality, art is, unavoid- 
ably, fiction. Although this is not a new aesthetic 
concept, it is a central question raised in French art 
now. In pursuing this issue, Boltanski, Le Gac and 
others have sought to dramatize the relationship be- 
tween what is real and what is false through their 
art, a concern which has gained new relevance for 
many younger artists in France today. 

A profound change in styles and a radical up- 
heaval of values, constituting a reversal of the ana- 
lytical and theoretical tendencies of the seventies, 
marked the dawn of a new decade in France. This 
change was heralded by the Figuration Libre group, 
whose nucleus was formed by Robert Combas and 
Herve di Rosa and which was later expanded to in- 
clude Remy Blanchard and Frangois Boisrond. 
These artists returned to figuration in dynamic 
paintings in which they gave free reign to their emo- 
tions and imaginations. Often sarcastic, witty or 
even naughty in tone, their imagery drew on popu- 
lar culture as its source— in particular, rock music, 
cartoon strips, science fiction, television, movies 
and video. They cultivated a deliberately childlike, 
naive, even crude style that was akin in certain re- 
spects to American graffiti painting, although the art- 
ists cite points of reference closer to home: COBRA, 
Dubuffet and L'Art Brut. Though the work of the 
Figuration Libre group has not had a particularly 
strong international impact, its importance in hav- 
ing liberated a very young generation of French 



artists from the austere minimalism of the previous 
decade cannot be underestimated. The notion of 
freedom inherent in the style is paramount. As 
one critic wrote: "Free! free . . . from theory and 
politics, from austere and calculated forms and 
suggested messages. Free from intellect and 
thought, from solemnity of life and culture, free 
from responsibility and morals; why not say from 
art, simply. . . . New wave, new speed, here comes 
'bad painting.' To go fast, to express oneself quickly, 
to understand rapidly: the figure imposes itself." 4 

Since the early eighties, a different direction in 
painting, also figurative, has been explored in 
France. The artists working in this idiom, most no- 
tably Jean-Michel Alberola and Gerard Garouste, 
compose narrations that include mythological and 
art-historical references, which they then present in 
a conceptual framework. At the outset, what these 
artists shared with the Figuration Libre group was 
the desire to enter the international mainstream and 
participate in a dialogue with the prevailing Neo- 
Expressionist current. In this respect, their efforts 
have done much to awaken artistic life in France 
during this crucial period. 

Yet another factor of extreme significance for 
French art, this time in the political arena, came into 
play early in the decade. The installation of Fran- 
gois Mitterrand's Socialist regime in 1981, and his 
appointment of Jack Lang as Minister of Culture, 
has reverberated profoundly in creative realms in 
France, particularly in the domain of the visual arts. 
The emphasis of the Socialists' cultural policy has 
been to stimulate artistic creativity, in Mitterrand's 
words, "to give the people the power to invent, to 
imagine, to dream." 5 The instruments by which this 
was to be accomplished were, first and foremost, an 



enormous increase in the budget for culture, and 
second, the decentralization of cultural resources. 
Ironically, Paris was consequently destined once 
again to lose its stature as the single artistic center, 
though this time on a national rather than interna- 
tional scale. 

Decentralization was accomplished by a complex 
structure of state agencies. The Delegation aux Arts 
Plastiques (D.A.P.) was established to focus solely 
on contemporary art, under the direction of Claude 
Mollard, who subsequently founded the Centre Na- 
tional des Arts Plastiques (C.N.A.P.). The most im- 
portant offshoot of these organizations, the Fonds 
d'lncitation a la Creation (F.I.A.C.R.E.), has had the 
mission of opening new channels to bring contem- 
porary art in the provinces to the attention of the 
public. To accomplish this goal, F.I.A.C.R.E. cre- 
ated the twenty-two Fonds Regionaux d'Art Con- 
temporain (F.R.A.C.s), charged with assembling 
collections of contemporary art in their regions and 
with exhibiting these collections. The enlarged na- 
tional arts budget also provided funding for France's 
inadequate system of art education— considered by 
some to be a fundamental cause of the problems 
faced by the art community— and an increase in the 
number of large-scale public commissions for artists. 

Four years since their inception, the F.R.A.C.s 
have purchased over 6,000 works by 1,200 artists 
and initiated some 200 public commissions. While 
artists still gravitate to Paris, indisputably the pri- 
mary cultural center of France, to find a stimulating 
community of peers who share their interests and to 
achieve recognition, artistic activities in France's 
regions are also flourishing, most notably in Bor- 
deaux, Lyon, Saint Etienne, Marseille, Nimes, Nice 
and Nantes. Though generally lauded for their ef- 



forts, the F.R.A.C.s have had to bear the brunt of 
harsh criticism from the press and from art pro- 
fessionals regarding their acquisition policies, the 
extent of state involvement in cultural affairs, the 
lack of permanent facilities for the maintenance and 
display of these collections, and the wisdom of the 
philosophy of decentralization. Yet despite any res- 
ervations one might have with regard to the Minis- 
try of Culture's programs, it is generally agreed that 
after only a few years, the signs that indicate a re- 
surgence of a French vanguard are promising. 
There is certainly evidence of a restimulation of ar- 
tistic activity through increased exhibition possi- 
bilities, a more active art market and a rejuvenated 
critical and aesthetic dialogue. The French question 
whether this will lead now to a new school of 
contemporary art. In recent years the lack of iden- 
tifiably French movements or schools has been 
considered a detriment to the achievement of in- 
ternational recognition, whereas the specific na- 
tional characteristics in German and Italian painting 
and New British Sculpture have served as a distinct 
advantage in this context. But the French notion of 
individualism remains strong: the younger artists, 
like their predecessors, appear to stalwartly refuse 
to be labeled, despite the fact that they have many 
common concerns. 

However, regardless of the rejection of the notion 
of a collective identity, there is an aesthetic that is 
shared by a number of younger French artists. This 
aesthetic draws primarily (and very selectively) upon 
indigenous sources, yet reinterprets them in ways 
that are new and extremely creative. In particular, 
two tendencies in French art that are poles apart 
stylistically nourish the work of many artists today: 
the decorative and the theoretical. Several decora- 



tive styles were born in France, from the ornate 
Rococco through Matisse's sensuous and lyrical 
drawing and color, and aspects of this tradition can 
be found in the recent work of numerous contempo- 
rary artists. Yet for many young painters, decora- 
tive is a pejorative term implying the absence of an 
intellectual base, and is thus synonymous with su- 
perficial or bourgeois attitudes. This contributes in 
part to the continued importance of Minimalist and 
Conceptualist ideas of the generation of the sixties 
and seventies on younger artists of the eighties 
active in all media. Their works reveal a persistent 
inquiry into the nature of art itself, and often use 
language as a basic tool in this endeavor. Similarly, 
the ideas of Dada and Marcel Duchamp, extremely 
important in the sixties, have renewed importance 
today, particularly for those artists investigating the 
area of the sculptural "object." 

Even though these decorative and theoretical 
tendencies continue to preoccupy younger artists, 
what is new is that such attitudes are now tem- 
pered. For example, many artists work in reductive 
modes that do not have the austerity of Minimalism. 
The rigidity of Conceptual approaches has also 
been eased, so that ideas are often embodied in 
more demonstrative physical form, and infused, ul- 
timately, with poetry, sentiment and emotion. Some 
artists draw on both the decorative and theoretical 
traditions, and appear to be striking a balance be- 
tween these seemingly irreconcilable stylistic poles. 
Indeed, many of them have reformulated their atti- 
tudes toward decorative tendencies by reframing 
them in a more theoretical context. And painting, 
sculpture and photography are frequently combined, 
making the categorization of work increasingly dif- 
ficult and, indeed, of less consequence. 



10 



The ten artists included in Angles of Vision rep- 
resent only a small cross-section of the current 
artistic activity in France; they highlight, in particu- 
lar, the original and inventive statements being 
made in the areas of sculpture, installation and pho- 
tography. Although painting, in its strictest defini- 
tion as oil or acrylic on canvas, is not featured here, 
several artists do use that medium as the foundation 
of their work, most notably, Philippe Favier, in his 
precisely rendered miniature paintings on paper or 
glass, and Georges Rousse, in his remarkable pho- 
tographs of environments that have been trans- 
formed by paint. Judith Bartolani's richly worked 
surfaces, and the calligraphic silhouettes of what can 
best be described as drawings in space, partake of 
a painterly aesthetic, although her work is firmly en- 
trenched in sculptural conventions. The ingeniously 
fabricated machines of Richard Baquie and the 
lyrical bas-reliefs and installations of Daniel Trem- 
blay epitomize a very different aspect of a sculptural 
mode, prevalent in France today, that relies on com- 
monplace objects. These objects and materials are 
combined and, by virtue of the interplay of their 
functional and poetic associations, transformed. 
Ange Leccia "arranges" objects, frequently ma- 
chines, to set up simple relationships that bear 
strong emotional content. Tremblay, Leccia and 
Marie Bourget believe that the simplest means of 
expression is often the most evocative. Sometimes 
this quest for simplicity is nourished by memories 
of childhood experiences; the staged situations of 
Bernard Faucon's haunting photographs depend on 
such recollections as well. Bourget's abstract land- 
scapes call on language to question notions of per- 
ception. In this regard, the seductive environments 
and accompanying texts of Martine Aballea's instal- 



lations also play on the capacity of language to con- 
vey the subtlest innuendo and implication, as do Pat- 
rick Tosani's photographs of falling rain interrupted 
by the artifice of plexiglass punctuation marks. 

And finally, at the heart of much contemporary 
French art we find the enduring questions about 
the nature of reality and its relationship to art, ex- 
plorations that depend on and continue the legacy 
of the artists of the sixties and seventies. To pur- 
sue these questions artists create "fictions"— sit- 
uations that they either purely invent, or that are 
produced by their indirect intervention in conditions 
or circumstances that exist in daily life. A recent 
exhibition in Paris addressed the prevalence of fic- 
tional strategies in art now, and described this ap- 
proach as "... a formal and mental device interven- 
ing in the articulation of space and language, sliding 
progressively into fiction by dissimulation, meta- 
phorical semblance, pretence and other delusions, 
not the least being to present the literal itself as 
fictitious." 6 Thus, fiction continues not only to de- 
ceive, but also to reveal new truths in French art 
today. 



Notes 

1. The six French artists included in Documenta 7 
were Daniel Buren, Pierre Klossowski. Bertrand 
Lavier, Claude Rutault, Sarkis and Niele Toroni; 
at The Museum of Modern Art, France was repre- 
sented by Jean-Michel Alberola, Jean-Charles 
Blais, Patrice Giorda, Toni Grand, Bertrand 
Lavier, Jean Le Gac, Patrick Saytour and Claude 
Viallat. 

2. Maurice Eschapasse, "L'Avenement de I'objet" 
in Douze Ans d'art contemporain en France, exh. 
cat., Grand Palais, Paris, 1972, p. 61; reprinted 
from Pierre Restany, Un Manifeste de la nouvelle 
peinture. Les Nouveaux Realistes, Paris, 1968, 

p. 57. 

3. Otto Hahn, Statements, New York 82, Leading 
Contemporary Artists from France, exh. cat., 
New York, 1982, p. 7. 

4. Marie-Luise Syring, "Infantilisme comme strate- 
gie. Quelques reflexions sur la Figuration libre" 
in Figures imposees, exh. cat., Espace Lyonnais 
d'Art Contemporain, Lyon, 1983; reprinted in 
French Spirit Today, exh. cat., Fisher Art Gallery, 
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 
and Museum of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, 
California, unpaginated. 

5. Dore Ashton, "Cultural Soundings in France, 
1983-84," Arts Magazine, vol. 58, January 1984, 
p. 116. 

6. Suzanne Page, introduction to Dispositit fiction, 
exh. cat., A.R.C., Musee d'Art Moderne de la 
Villede Paris, 1985, p. 3. 



11 



Marline 

Aballea 



In Martine Aballea's universe, everything is false. 
And thus, everything is possible. The artist's inven- 
tive oeuvre encompasses installation pieces, photo- 
graphs and books, and even more unconventional 
media such as posters, postcards and billboards, 
all of which simultaneously address the realms of 
the literary and the visual. Aballea relies heavily on 
language, especially on its poetic resonances and 
metaphorical possibilities. She also manipulates 
language cleverly, playing upon spontaneous asso- 
ciations, ambiguities of meaning or the subversion 
of its explicative properties through the substitution 
of unexpected visual equivalents. In some instances 
the correspondence between word and image may 
be mutually reinforcing: the words underscore the 
images, and the images intensify the words. 

The foundation of all of Aballea's work is fiction. 
For example, in 1985 she executed a series of In- 
complete Novels (Romans partiels) and posters for 
films that do not yet exist, which were exhibited with 
the enticing tag-line, "Coming soon to a theater [or 
bookstore] near you." For each book, only a cover 
design and a brief synopsis of the story exist: The 
Wicked Architect (Le Mechant Architecte) recounts 
the tale of a criminal architect who builds houses 
filled with traps. The film Prisoner of Sleep (Prison- 
niere du Sommeil) (cat. no. 8) is the story of a 
woman's desperate battle to keep her eyes open— 
for several years, she has not been able to awaken 
because her pillows are too soft, her sheets and 
blankets too comforting. Fragrance of the Forgotten 
(L'Odeur de I'Oubli) (cat. no. 6) involves a depart- 
ment store catastrophe in which several bottles of 
perfume are accidentally broken, creating a bizarre 
blend that wipes out the memories of all who sniff 
it. As the odor wafts through the air, the question, 



"When will this wave of amnesia stop?" is ominous- 
ly broadcast. 

Aballea's sensibility is closely linked to the Sur- 
realist aesthetic. Her interest in the associations 
and implications of words as opposed to their literal 
meanings, for example, derives from the Surrealist 
canon. In some cases, these associations breed 
hilariously funny results, such as her fictitious post- 
card of 1978 for The Elastic Hotel, where "there's 
always enough room." Yet an enigmatic quality usu- 
ally coexists with the humorous dimension of her 
works. Aballea always records her dreams ("Their 
logic serves as a working tool for me." 1 ) and has 
even published many of them in a book entitled Mid- 
night Avenue. She says, "I love these precise but 
elusive images, similar to those seen in half-sleep." 2 
Thus, the Surrealists' belief in the significance of 
dreams and the subconscious, which was inspired 
by the writings of Freud, is relevant to Aballea's 
approach. 

Installations constitute the main component of the 
artist's oeuvre, and this medium presents her with 
an ideal opportunity to exploit the Surrealist device 
of illogical or incongruous juxtaposition. These in- 
stallations address "scientific fictions," for the most 
part, and often deal with the transformation or mu- 
tation of materials or beings, another basic concept 
of Surrealism. Though it specifically refers to the 
artist's installation Nouveaux Phenomenes Naturels 
at A.R.C. in Paris, Aballea's introduction to the ac- 
companying catalogue illuminates this particular 
leitmotif of her artistic production: "We believe we 
are living in a world where nature is stable, where 
matter, living beings and laws which determine their 
interaction exist. But nature is, in fact, in a state of 
constant transformation: stars are born and die, 



12 



continents shift, living beings continue to evolve. 
And occasionally, we witness the appearance of 
mutations whose causes we do not understand. 
These mutations give birth to new species, to new 
natural phenomena." 3 

Explanatory texts accompany Aballea's installa- 
tions: they are often couched in quasi-scientific 
terminology and liberally peppered with convincing 
but fabricated Latin classifications of genus, proper 
names and authoritative quotations from these fic- 
titious individuals. The texts seem to close the gap 
between fact and fiction, but they leave us with a 
lingering doubt about the veracity of the situation 
the artist has created. In The Temple of Lizards (Le 
Temple de lezards), for example, she tells us that 
the progress of modern biochemistry has led to the 
rediscovery of an ancient Mayan formula for a liquid 
that, when ingested by the extremely rare lizard 
Lacerta aurea, turns their bodies into gold. Souvenir 
Gems (Bijoux-Souvenirs) (cat. no. 2) confounds 
even more the rapport between art and reality by 
relying on the direct participation (and gullibility) 
of the viewer in a situation that exists outside the 
context of art. Here, Aballea installed fake gem- 
stones around one of the elevators that links the 
train platform to the street in the Jaures metro sta- 
tion in Paris. A placard installed nearby cautioned 
riders that "the variations in pressure in this ele- 
vator can provoke the transformation of memories 
into mineral substances." 

By creating environments whose ambience and 
materials are seductive and captivating — qualities 
often intensified by the glow of colored lights — 
Aballea draws us into the magical world of her 
imagination. She invites us to ponder with her the 
inexplicable mysteries of life. With these works she 



questions not only the ability of art to reveal new 
truths and to deceive at the same time, but the very 
nature of reality itself. As she explains, "I do not 
believe that there is a definite boundary between 
the real and the unreal, but rather a large fluctuating 
zone of possibilities. It is in this large zone that my 
stories are situated." 4 

See individual artist's bibliographies for complete 
references. 

1. Fagnen, Actuel, 1982, p. 142. 

2. Nuridsany, Le Figaro, 1980, unpaginated. 

3. Nouveaux Phenomenes naturels, 1983, un- 
paginated. 

4. Renard, Art Press, 1983, p. 33. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Roslyn, New York, August 11, 1950 

Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, 
B.A. (Philosophy), 1971 

London School of Economics, 1971-72 

Moved to Paris, 1973 

"HorslesMurs" Grant, Villa Medici, 1983 

Fonds d'lncitation a la Creation (F.I.A.C.R.E.), 1984 

Lives and works in Paris 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Galerie des Locataires, New York, 1974 

Galerie du Centre Culturel Municipal, Villeparisis, 
La Poire de I'estampe, December 6, 1975-January 
15, 1976. Catalogue 

Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art, Art- 
words and Bookworks, February 28-March 30, 1978. 
Catalogue with texts by Mike Crane, Judith A. Hoff- 
berg and Joan Hugo. Traveled to Artist's Space, 



13 



New York, June 10-28; Herron School of Art, 
Indianapolis, Indiana, September 15-29; New 
Orleans Contemporary Art Center, Louisiana, 
October-November 

La Biennale di Venezia: Aperto 80. installation, 
"An Unknown Garden," May 28-September 30, 
1 980. Catalogue with texts by Harald Szeeman et al. 

Galerie Gillespie-Laage-Salomon, Paris. Artistes de 
la Biennale de Paris, installation, "Habitants des 
nuits vertes," September 18-October 15, 1980 

Musee d'Art Moderne de la Vi lie de Paris, XI Bien- 
nale de Paris, performance, "Cafe Crime," 
September 22-November 2, 1980. Catalogue 

Studio 666, Paris, 6 Photogrates, November 6-30, 

1980 

American Center, Paris, Livres d'artistes, September 

1981 

Maison de la Culture, Chalon-sur-Saone, 7 Expo- 
sitions d'hiver. installation, "Flammes de plantes," 
January 23-February 21. 1982. Catalogue 

American Center, Paris, Recits immobiles, installa- 
tion, "Arbre a bijoux," April 14-May 15, 1982 

Studio 666, Paris, April 22-May 29, 1982 

Art Prospect, Paris (organizer), Reseat; art, bill- 
board, "Parfum, Poussiere de Scandale," shown 
with posters and billboards commissioned for public 
display in France, June 1-15, 1982. Catalogue with 
texts by Jean-Louis Connan and Alain Garo 

Maison de la Culture de Rennes, II n'y a pas a pro- 
prement parler une histoire.. . , installation, "Le 
Temple des lezards," February 25-March 20, 1983. 
Catalogue with texts by Ramon Tio Bellido, Pascal 
Letellier and Pierre-Jean Valentin 

Association pour I'Art Contemporain, Nevers, Pour 
vivre heureux, vivons caches, installation, "L'Oiseau 
d'argent," May 30-June 30, 1984 

Musee Saint Pierre, Art Contemporain, Lyon, 
Collection 84, installation, "Les Derniers Jours de 
Clinton Creek." October 4-November 12, 1984. 
Catalogue 



14 



American Center, Paris, Ouatre Francais en 
Amerique, April 17-June 30, 1985. Catalogue with 
text by Madeleine Deschamps 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, Livres d'artistes, June 12- 
October 7, 1 985. Catalogue with text by Anne 
Moeglin-Delacroix 

Selected One-Woman Exhibitions 

Galerie das Fenster, Hamburg, installation, The 
Elastic Hotel, February 1976 

Franklin Furnace, New York, Sleep-Storm Crystals, 
January 21-February 10, 1978 

P.S. 1 , The Institute for Art and Urban Resources, 
Long Island City, New York, installation, The Tur- 
quoise Zone Seduction, December 3, 1978- 
January 21, 1979 

Locus Solus, Genoa, installation, Memorial Fish 
Laboratories, March 10-April 10, 1981 

A.R.C., Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
installation, Nouveaux Phenomenes naturels, 
March 15-April 24, 1983. Catalogue with text 
by the artist 

Musee de Trouville, Les Cliches de I'aventure, 
August 15-September30, 1984. Catalogue with 
text by Gilbert Lascault 

Galerie d'Art du Centre Culturel de I'Universite 
de Sherbrooke, Canada, October 12-November 17, 
1 985. Traveled to Musee du Bas-Saint-Laurent, 
Riviere-du-Loup, Canada, February 20- 
March 31, 1986 



Selected Bibliography 

By the Artist 

Clam Holiday (handbill), Paris and New York, 1975 

Triangle, Paris, 1977 

Element Rage, Paris, 1979 

Geographic Despair, Paris, 1979 



On the Artist 

Gloria Orenstein. ''Exorcism, Protest. Rebirth: 
Modes of Feminist Expression in France. Part 1 : 
French Women Artists Today. ' : V/omanart, vol. 2, 
Winter 1977-78, pp. 8-11 

Peter Frank, "The Message Melds the Media," 
The Village Voice, February 13. 1978, p. 66 

Michel Nuridsany, "Les Nuits vertes de Martine 
Aballea." Le Figaro, October 3, 1980, p. 24 

Anne Dagbert, ''Martine Aballea, Gloria Friedmann, 
Andreas Pfeiffer: Galerie Gillespie-Laage- 
Salomon," Art Press, no. 42, November 1980, p. 40 

Nancy Wilson-Pajic, "Martine Aballea, 'Green 
Nights." Art'orum, vol. 19, January 1981, p. 79 

Yanne Fagnen, "Douze Chambres de filles," 
Actuel, no. 27, January 1981. p. 142 

Madeleine Deschamps, Canal, April-May 1982 

Herve Gauville, "L'Art d'accommoder les riens," 
Liberation, April 7, 1983, p. 28 

Anne Dagbert, "Aballea, Bertholin. Gette. Rutault, 
Yalter, ARC," Art Press, no. 70, May 1983, p. 54 

Delphine Renard, "Les Fictions scientifiques de 
Martine Aballea," Art Press, no. 73, September 
1983, p. 33 

Michel Nuridsany, "L'Art vivant," Le Figaro, 
June 22, 1984, p. 29 

Anne Dagbert, "Quatre Francais en Amerique," 
Art Press, no. 93, June 1 985. p. 64 

Anne Moeglin-Delacroix, "Reves d'artiste: A propos 
des livres de Martine Aballea," Nouvelles de 
I'Estampe, no. 85, March 1986, pp. 27-29 



15 




16 



1 Memorial Fish Laboratories. 1981 
Installation, Locus Solus, Genoa 



L i/'e are testing a new method for registering memories of fish. 

(Zhis process is invisible and harmless. Che longer ijou stag 
with us, the more information we will have for our archiues. CAe 
onlg effect you mag feel will be a heightened awareness of fish 
for a short while after this experiment. 

Lslianli gou for your collaboration. 



17 



2 Souvenir Gems (Bijoux-Souvenirs). 1981 
Installation, Art Metro, Paris 




18 



In the "Jaures" metro station there are elevators 
linking the train platforms to the street. Around the 
base of the street-level elevators. I spread glass 
emeralds, rubies, diamonds and sapphires. On the 
side of the elevators I affixed the following sign: 



NOTICE 



THE VARIATIONS IN PRESSURE 

IN THIS ELEVATOR 

CAN PROVOKE 

THE TRANSFORMATION OF MEMORIES 

INTO MINERAL SUBSTANCES 



19 



3 Tree of Jewels (Arbre a Bijoux). 1 982 
Installation, American Center, Paris 




20 



Tree of Jewels — Nor-Bu Siri-s Don — Habitat : Tibet 

This plant has the ability to assemble into crystal- 
line structures the minerals it assimilates from the soil. 
Until the recent discovery of a few specimens, it was 
considered legendary. 

The only other known reference to this plant is 
found in the book Oriental Curiosities by Sir Lewis 
Adams, explorer, who travelled throughout the Hima- 
layas in the mid-XIXth century: 

"The following day, towards noon, I descended 
into a valley so beautiful, and so full of flowers, that I 
was certain I had rediscovered Paradise lost. And 
among all these wonders of vegetation, I suddenly per- 
ceived one even more splendid than the others, for its 
blossoms imitated in every detail a bouquet of 
diamonds. I stood before it, deep in admiration, when, 
without warning, a dozen men sprung out of the bushes 
around me. They had the features of mountain people, 
they were scantily dressed, and they were green from 
head to foot. Without violence, they brought me to 
their village, and there I saw that the rest of the popula- 
tion was also entirely green. After having scrupulously 
searched and examined me. they allowed me to stay 
with them. I observed that they nourished themselves 
solely on water and the diamond-flowers, and that their 
principal occupation was the adoration of the sun. The 
very peculiar appearance and customs of these people 
intrigued me immensely, but my efforts to communi- 
cate with them remained unsuccessful. Thus I resolved 
to continue my journey. 

"On the eve of my departure, one of the elders of 
the village, who spoke a few words of English, came 
to me and said: 'Here we eat the gem-flowers. It is a 
special food, for it transforms our bodies and enables 
us to absorb light, air, and water the same way vegeta- 
tion does. We are plant-people, uniting in ourselves the 
different aspects of life and matter." " 



21 



4 The Last Days of Clinton Creek (Les Derniers 
Jours de Clinton Creek). 1984 
Installation, Musee Saint Pierre, Art Contemporain, 
Lyon 




22 



The town of Clinton Creek, territory of New Mexico, was founded in March 1871, on the 
day Horace J. Clinton discovered a silver vein there. The news travelled fast and, three 
months later, 1357 inhabitants had settled the area to profit from the riches of the land. Four 
years later, Clinton Creek had prospered and had become a veritable town, with six sa- 
loons, five stores, three hotels, a stable, a church, and a prison. Nothing in particular distin- 
guished this community from the dozens of similar communities throughout the territory. 

On the 21st of April 1875, however, the Santa Fe stagecoach stopped dead at the edge of 
the town, startled by a disconcerting scene: the buildings, the streets, and all the wagons 
were entirely covered with a thick greenish substance. Terrified, the drivers turned around 
and rode away at a gallop. They had almost reached Watrous, their next stop, when they 
were hailed by a panic-stricken man stained with the same green substance they had seen 
at Clinton Creek. He begged them to take him aboard so that he could tell the sheriff what 
had happened. 

In the law-keeper's office the man told his story. On the preceding day, in the afternoon, 
a travelling "doctor" had set up his wagon on the main street. A small assembly had 
gathered around him as he praised the merits of his elixirs, unguents, and other miraculous 
products. He then presented a potion which he declared was even more spectacular. He 
claimed it had been personally given to him by a powerful Sioux medicine man. The potion 
in question was an extremely rare "liquid plant" which could grow rapidly anywhere. It was 
edible and possessed other properties that were even more remarkable. But he never got 
the chance to finish his speech: a drunken miner, who had already been laughing for a 
while at such exaggerated statements, started shooting at the bottles of "liquid plant!' A 
fight broke out and the doctor fled, leaving behind his wagon and his vials, most of which 
now lay broken on the ground. As for the townspeople, they all had a good time. That even- 
ing, some of them had the impression that the puddles of "liquid plant" had grown, but no 
one took any notice of it. 

The following morning, however, the town awoke to a pervasive horror: it had been in- 
vaded by the green substance; everything and everyone was covered with it. Hysterical, 
people ran screaming in all directions. 

The sheriff of Watrous had listened carefully to the story and the next day he took five of 
his best men with him to investigate the scene of these events. The green substance had 
disappeared, but now the ground, the buildings, and all visible objects were a dark, mat 
gray. There was no sign of life anywhere. Amid the grayness, though, the men thought they 
perceived bright sparkles. When they examined the town more closely, they saw that all 
the gray objects were encrusted with small diamonds. 

Puzzled by this situation, the sheriff nevertheless thought of bringing back with him sam- 
ples of objects from Clinton Creek. As for the inhabitants, no trace of them was ever found. 

Few scientists have interested themselves in this phenomenon for lack of concrete data. 
In the thirties, however, some of them advanced the hypothesis that the green substance 
(which was never identified) must have modified the molecular structure of carbon, an ele- 
ment which is found in practically everything that surrounds us. 



23 



5 Scandal Dust Perfume (Parlum. Poussiere de 
Scandale). 1982 
Billboard, 1 18 x 157V2" 
Courtesy Art Prospect, Paris 




24 



6 Fragrance of the Forgotten (L'Odeur de f'Oubli). 
1985 

Design for poster for film that does not yet exist, 
hand-colored photograph, 27 Y2 x 19 3 /*" 
Collection of the artist 




In a department store, an accidental movement causes sev- 
eral bottles of perfume to fall and break. The resulting mix- 
ture possesses properties hitherto unknown and affects all 
who breathe it, entirely erasing their memories. 

Little by little, the emanations drift throughout the store. 
In the following hours, hundreds of people will be seen com- 
ing out into the street with blank faces, looking contented, 
walking aimlessly. And all those attempting to enter the 
store to discover the cause of this behavior will in turn be 
affected. 

When will this wave of amnesia stop? 



25 



A Mystery of the Frozen North (Un Mystere du 
Grand Nord). 1985 

Design for poster for film that does not yet exist, 
hand-colored photograph, 2716 x 19%" 
Collection of the artist 






UN MYSTERE 

DU 
GRAND NORD 




Along the borders of the Arctic, the question had remained 
unanswered for two hundred years: Why had explorers, 
trappers, and gold diggers disappeared without leaving a 
trace? How could houses, trees, and even lakes simply vanish? 

Were we to believe a hoax? Or were we to believe the 
ancient Indian legends 7 

Today science reveals to all the secret of this desolate land 
near the roof of the world 



Aux confins de l'aictique. on se posait la question 
depuis deux siecles Pourquoi des explotateurs, des 
irappeurs. des chercheurs d'or avatent-ils dispaiu sans 
laisser de traces ? Comment des maisons. des arbres. et 
meme des lacs avaienMls pu se volatihser ? 

Fallait-il croire a une superchene ° Ou fallait-il croire 
les antiques legendes indiennes ? 

Aujourd'hui la science revele a tous le secret de 
cette region desolee pres du ton du monde 



26 



8 Prisoner of Sleep (Prisonniere du Sommeil). 1 985 

Design for poster for film that does not yet exist, 
hand-colored photograph, 27 1 /2 x 19%" 
Collection of the artist 




Each day began anew the desperate struggle to keep her eyes 
open. With all her strength, she would try to perceive noises, 
movements, or other signs from the outside world. But her 
arms, her legs, and her body were too heavy. And so she would 
close her eyes again and let herself drift softly towards the ever 
so comforting dark kingdom of sleep. 

This situation had been persisting for several years now. 



27 



Richard 
Baquie 



The process of recuperating and recycling dis- 
carded objects and materials, both mundane and 
sophisticated, is part of Richard Baquie's everyday 
life in Marseille. Inspired by the inherent properties 
of these found elements, by their forms and their 
functions, the artist combines them to create sculp- 
ture. By reorganizing them in this way, he simulta- 
neously restores a sense of their former life and 
propels them into an entirely new realm. Movement 
is integral to these constructions, and the artist often 
incorporates sound, light and film to enhance their 
animation. These complex pieces are perhaps better 
defined as machines than as sculptures. As the 
artist explains, "I'm interested in all machines, an- 
cient and contemporary, but I don't try to promote 
them. They interest me because of their movement, 
their capacity for creating stories. They stimulate 
mental projections in the spectator, force him to 
create associations, to open another space."' 

There are several levels to Baquie's work, and 
taken together they form a whole in which the tech- 
nological and the poetic interact with unusual har- 
mony. The artist enjoys the functional and the 
aesthetic qualities of machines, and both are called 
on to participate in his sculptures. He uses opera- 
tive motors, fans, projectors and record players, for 
example, to generate energy, wind, imagery, music 
and other sounds. These constructions are refined, 
yet they are also deliberately crude and makeshift 
in their juxtaposition of parts. Baquie does not dis- 
guise the mechanistic components— indeed, he 
exalts them for their formal properties, and allows 
them to coexist with sleeker, more conventionally 
aesthetic sculptural elements. The most important 
aspect of these pieces, however, is that in the 
grouping of disparate parts to form the larger ob- 



ject, new connections evolve and, consequently, a 
potent transformation of meaning occurs. 

These machines are informed by an intensely 
poetic spirit. Their often lengthy titles and the per- 
sistent incorporation of language in the form of 
words and phrases into the structures of the pieces 
reinforce their poetic, communicative and contem- 
plative dimensions. Forgotten Passion (Passion 
oubliee) (cat. no. 10), for example, consists of plas- 
ter letters that spell out the word "passion" placed 
on the floor. They are connected by a rudimentary 
yet strangely elegant rigging system of coiled plas- 
tic tubing to a basin of water— an old water storage 
tank from a multifamily dwelling in Marseille— to 
form an irrigation system. The circulation of water 
through this system suggests an alterative, perhaps 
alchemical process. The notions of the transforma- 
tion of base materials into a more precious sub- 
stance, and of distillation and purification are all 
invoked here, and recall the ideas of the Arte Povera 
artists. Joseph Beuys's sculptural articulation of or- 
ganic functions in works such as Honey Pump, and 
his equation of the process of change with the proc- 
ess of life also come to mind. 

Many of Baquie's earliest pieces involve ah - 
planes. He says, "A plane for me is the most suc- 
cessful sculpture of all, defying gravity, not confined 
to a base." 2 The artist made use of various devices, 
including fans and solar cells, to keep these air- 
planes aloft (see cat. no. 9). The romantic notions 
of voyages and flight, both real and imaginary, are 
cultivated by him in works involving means of loco- 
motion—planes, cars and trains. In Formerly, He 
Often Took the Train to Transfer His Anxiety into 
Weariness (Autrefois, II prenait souvent le train pour 
travestir son inquietude en lassitude) (cat. no. 11), 



28 



the artist appropriates a railway-car window which, 
in its open position, allows us to feel the wind 
generated by the fans within and thus simulates a 
sense of movement. Enigmatic and not immediately 
comprehensible in its bulky and cumbersome con- 
figuration, the sculpture nonetheless invites us to 
explore its hidden meanings. 

Baquie's machines recall the French tradition of 
assemblage, as elaborated by the artists of Le Nou- 
veau Realisme. They are reminiscent of Tinguely's 
fantastical machines which combine assemblage 
and mechanical movement, as well as Cesar's con- 
structions using machine parts and his compressed 
automobiles, which raise questions about the ef- 
fects of the machine age on civilization. Similarly, 
Baquie's use of modes of transportation as one of 
his principal subjects not only conjures up romantic 
associations but also raises specifically contempo- 
rary questions about space and time. He speaks of 
this issue as it is addressed in his work: "The basic 
question for me is that of my place in society's 
space, and this society's future as a whole in its 
movement and progress. To speak of time could be 
a romantic attitude .... For me, I speak of moving 
in space, of a synthesis between space and time. 
As such notions are hardly thinkable in the abso- 
lute, I construct fictional situations in order to gen- 
eralize my questions, to universalize them." 3 

Yet another animating force in Baquie's oeuvre is 
the nostalgia for the lost time of youth. In Every 
Project Begins with a Story (Tout Projet commence 
par une histoire) (cat. no. 12), the artist convincingly 
replicates the experience of "cruising" in an auto- 
mobile by situating his sculptural elements in such 
a way as to draw us in and make us physically feel 
what he remembers feeling in the situation that in- 



spired the piece. Our senses are bombarded by the 
blaring music of the phonograph, meant to be the 
car radio; the powerful fans which suggest both the 
noise of the engine and the wind hitting us squarely 
in the face; and the dizzying film, projected on the 
far wall, which shows the view from the driver's seat 
as the car careens down a steep and winding road. 
The artist depends on our responsiveness to these 
sensations, as well as to the memories and associa- 
tions they invoke. As one critic has noted of these 
pieces, "The dynamic expressed by the physical 
reality of animated and scenographic materials 
mimics the function of thought in its effort to grasp 
time and space. And it is within this atmosphere of 
immateriality that the game is essentially played." 4 
In a recent installation at A.R.C.A. in Marseille 
(cat. nos. 14-17) Baquie also re-creates the physical 
stimuli associated with cars. A Plymouth is cut into 
four sections and labeled North, South, East and 
West; their disposition in the exhibition space cor- 
responds to these designations. In Plymouth West 
the section is placed so that we see its interior- 
windows and upholstered doors. Yet its exterior is 
mounted to a giant, electrically refrigerated metal 
arrow, so our view through the window is blocked 
by an imposing bank of frost and ice. The opposite 
sensation is evoked in Plymouth South: here, a con- 
crete slab inscribed with the words "Amore mio" 
rests on the hood and is connected to a vat of boil- 
ing liquid that suggests an overheated radiator. The 
rear fragment, Plymouth North, alludes to the mo- 
tion of the car and the sounds of cars, trains and the 
radio with a fan and stereo receiver, which filter 
their emissions through a long metal cylinder to the 
back seat. And in Plymouth East, a revolving wheel 
covered with a kaleidoscope of landscape images 



29 



projects through the left window. Characteristically, 
we are situated on the inside of the quartered car to 
maximize the impression of actual experience. Addi- 
tionally, in this piece as in others, the wheels are 
removed from the automobiles and replaced with 
anonymous metal supports which immobilize them— 
in this case, the base of a sewing machine. Baquie 
strips the object of some of its literalness with this 
device. Propped up, it is rendered static despite the 
implications of rapid motion and, as such, partici- 
pates more fully in a sculptural context. Baquie cre- 
ates fictions with his machines, yet intermingles 
them with a reality so acute that they are projected 
into a mental and sensorial space that extends well 
beyond the physical confines of the exhibition envi- 
ronment. 

1. Art hangais: Positions, 1986, p. 39. 

2. Ibid. 

3. Ibid. 

4. Boue, Des Arts, 1986, p. 85. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Marseille. May 1, 1952 

Ecole Regionale des Beaux-Arts et d'Architecture, 
Marseille-Luminy, Diplome Nationale Superieure 
d'Expression Plastique, 1981 

Lives and works in Marseille 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Ecole d'Art d'Aix-en-Provence, Presence 
contemporaine, July-August 1980 

Images Actes Lies, Marseille, Sculptures, 
March 29-April 17, 1982 

Espace Pierre Cardin, Paris, Salon de Mai, 
April 30-May 31, 1982 



Centre Culturel d'Aubagne, Jeunes Createurs, 
May 7-June3. 1982 

Musee des Beaux-Arts, Nimes, Volumes, 
September 7-19, 1982 

Images Actes Lies. Marseille, Lieux d'artistes, 
October 1-17, 1982 

5°17 longitude Est. 4316 latitude Nord, Marseille, 
Operation rhinocerus, March 8. 1983 

Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et 
Plastiques, Paris, L'Apres midi. May 24-June 10, 

1983. Catalogue 

Musee Sainte-Croix. Poitiers, Symposium, June- 
August 1 983. Catalogue with texts by Josee 
Escudier and Didier Semin 

A.R.C.A. (Action Regionale pour la Creation 
Artistique), Marseille, Octopus, September 6- 
October 15, 1983. Catalogue 

F.R.A.C. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Marseille 

(organizer), Fonds regional art contemporain, 

1982-1983, Musee Cantini, Marseille, 1983. 

Catalogue 

Galerie Axe Art Actuel, Toulouse, Installations, 

January 17-February 7, 1984 

Musee des Beaux-Arts de Chartres, Nouveaux 
Objets illustratifs ou le creve-coeur en 1984, 
March 24-April 28, 1984. Catalogue with text by 
Patrice le Nouene and statements by the artists 

Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, Epure si Muove, 

April 11-May 6, 1984 

Nice, Presentez art, July 3-10, 1984 

Maison de la Culture, Albi, Simeon et les flamants 
roses: Jeune Sculpture europeenne, July 10- 
August 31, 1984. Catalogue with texts by Patrice 
Bloch, Achille Bonito Oliva, M. Fernandez-Cid, 
Marc Partouche and Laurent Pesenti 
F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 
/ Ateliers internationaux de Fontevraud, Abbaye 
Royale de Fontevraud, October 27-December 1 1 , 

1984. Catalogue with texts by Michel Enrici, 
Bernard Martin et al. 



30 



Musee Cantini, Marseille, Fonds regional d'art 
contemporain, November 1984. Catalogue. Traveled 
to Fondation Maeght, Saint Paul-de-Vence. 
March 1985 

F. R. A. C. Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse (organizer), Sagas, 
versant sud: Parcours dans I'art d'aujourd'hui de 
Bordeaux a Nice, Palau Meca, Barcelona, June 18- 
July 28, 1985. Catalogue 

Gracie Mansion Gallery, New York, Galerie Eric 
Fabre at Gracie Mansion, June 20-July 13, 1985 

Hotel de Matignon, Paris, Sculptures, June 20- 
July 6, 1985. Catalogue 
Fort Saint Alban, Nice, Cartes et chateaux, 
July 1985 

Galerie Arlogos, Nantes, G. Autard, R. Baquie, 
R. Monnier, G. Thupinier, October 5-26, 1985 

Fondation Cartier, Jouy-en-Josas, Sculptures, 
October 1985-January 1986. Catalogue 

Centre de Creation Contemporaine, Tours, France- 
Tours, art actuel: Deuxieme Biennale nationale d'art 
contemporain, November 29, 1985-January 6, 1986. 
Catalogue with texts by Didier Larnac, Loi'c Malle, 
Philippe Piguet, Delphine Renard and Jerome Sans 
and interview with Skimao by Christian Laune 

F.R.A.C. Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse (organizer), 
Itineraires du versant sud, Centre Regional d'Art 
Contemporain, Toulouse, December 3, 1985- 
February 23, 1986. Catalogue 

Musee Cantini, Marseille, Acquisitions 82-85 du 
F.R.A.C. Provence-Cote d'Azur, December 1985. 
Catalogue 

B.I.G. Berlin, Art frangais: Positions, February 
8-23, 1986. Catalogue with texts by Jean de Loisy 
and Hans-Peter Schwerfel and interviews with the 
artists by Philippe Cyroulnik, Jean de Loisy, 
Paul-Herve Parsy and Joelle Pijaudier 

Centre Regional d'Art Contemporain Midi-Pyrenees, 

Toulouse, Varietes-jeux d'objets, March 12-April 6, 

1986 

Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et 



Plastiques, Paris, Creations pour un F.R.A.C. 
(Pays de la Loire), April 29-June 8, 1986 

Amsterdam, Kunst Rai 86, June 4-8, 1986. 
Catalogue 

Maison de la Culture de Rennes, Festival des Arts 
Electroniques, June 6-30, 1986. Catalogue 

Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Galerie Eric Fabre. Paris, September 20- 
October 15. 1984 

Galerie Arlogos, Nantes, May 4-July 8, 1985 

A.R.C.A. (Action Regionale pour la Creation 
Artistique), Marseille, December 16, 1985-February 
9, 1986. Catalogue with text by Michel Enrici 

Selected Bibliography 

By the Artist 

Public, no. 3, 1985, p. 64 

On the Artist 

Use Ott, "Octopus," Art Press, no. 75, November 

1983, p. 48 

Marc Partouche, "Albi," Axe Sud, no. 13. 
Summer 1984 

Christian Schlatter, "L'Art des recits prives (II)," 
Artistes, no. 20, Summer 1984. pp. 98-103 

"Simeon et les flamants roses," Mars, no. 6, 
Summer 1984, pp. 38-40 

Patrick Krebs, Flash Art (France), no. 6, Winter 
1984-85 

Frederic Durand-Ferchal, "L'Amerique redecouvre 
la France," L'Art Vivant, no. 10. March-April 1985, 
pp. 20-21 

Delphine Renard, "Sagas, Palau Meca," Art Press, 
no. 95, September 1985, p. 60 

Brigitte Cornand, "Avec ses droles de machines 
soufflantes, ronflantes," Actuel, no. 74, December 
1985, p. 195 



31 



Marc Partouche, "Visite chez Richard Baquie," 
Mars, no. 7-8, Winter 1985-8G, pp. 2-5 

Catherine Grout, "Sculpture in France," Flash Art 

(International), no. 125, December 1985-January 

1986, pp. 66-69 

Philippe Piguet, "Richard Bequie: Le Temps de 

rien," LEvenement, no. 63, January 16-22, 1986, 

p. 114 

Henri-Fran?ois Debailleux, "Portrait: Richard 

Baquie," Beaux-Arts Magazine, no. 32, February 

1986, pp. 74-76 

Jean-Louis Marcos, "Richard Baquie," Art Press, 

no. 100, February 1986, p. 81 

Sicard Bergeron, Art Theme, no. 32, March 1986, 

p. 24 

Caroline Clement and Philippe Nottin, "Le Temps 

de rien, " Kanal, no. 17-18, March 1986, pp. 22-23 

Brigitte Cornand, "Vive le genie," Actuel, no. 77, 
March 1986, pp. 88-89 

Catherine Grout, "Sculptures," Flash Art (France), 
no. 10, March 1986, p. 38 
Catherine Grout, "L'Enfance de Tart," Axe Sud, 
no. 16, April 1986, p. 22 
Maiten Bouisset, " 'Varietes-Jeux d'objets,' " 
Art Press, no. 103, May 1986, p. 68 
Marie Boue, "Primitivisme et nouvelles technolo- 
gies," Des Arts, no. 2, Spring 1986, pp. 83-85 

Jean-Louis Marcos, "Le Cabanon et L'ESPACE- 
TEMPS," Art Press, no. 104, June 1986, p. 39 

Anne Richard, "Sculpture/Objet/lmage 1985, Mort 
d'un Espace de Fiction," Opus, no. 99, Winter 1986, 
pp. 18-23 



32 



9 Wind Situation III (Situation du vent III). 1 983 

Plastic bags, wood, grass and fan, 78% x 39% x 39 3 /e" 
Courtesy Galerie de Paris 




33 



10 Forgotten Passion (Passion oubliee). 1984 
Plaster, plastic tubes, motor, metal, wood, water 
storage tank and water, 48 x 94 V2 x 1 50" 
Collection Ministere de la Culture-Direction 
Regionale des Affaires Culturelles des Pays de la 
Loire-Centre Culturel de I'Ouest 




34 




35 



1 1 Formerly, He Often Took the Train to Transfer His 
Anxiety into Weariness (Autrefois, il prenalt 
souvent le train pour travestir son inquietude en 
lassitude). 1984 

Metal, railway-car window, fans, cloth and LED sign, 
72% x 1 25% x 36V 

Collection Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre 
Georges Pompidou, Paris 




36 



1 2 Every Project Begins with a Story (Tout pro jet 
commence par une histoire) (detail). 1985 
Metal, section of automobile frame, phonograph, 
fans, film projector and film, 67 x 50 x 23%" 
Collection Fondation Cartier pour I'Art Contemporain, 
Jouy-en-Josas 





37 



1 3 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 985 

Chair, cardboard letters and metal, 48%" high 
Collection Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 
The Netherlands 




38 



1 4 Plymouth East (Plymouth Est). 1 985 

Automobile door, metal, wood, strobe light and 
photographs with ink drawings, 87% x 91 5 /b x 39 3 /a" 
Collection Roger Pailhas, Marseille 




39 



15 Plymouth South (Plymouth Sud). 1985 

Front of automobile, concrete, metal, tar, rubber and 
water, 567a x 767b x 69 'A" 

Collection Roger Pailhas, Marseille 




40 



1 6 Plymouth West (Plymouth Ouest). 1 985 

Right side of automobile, metal, electrically re- 
frigerated metal element and ice, 59 x 1 20 x 25V2 " 
Collection Roger Pailhas, Marseille 




41 




42 



1 7 Plymouth North (Plymouth Nord). 1 985 

Rear of automobile, fan, metal, speaker and car 
radio, 54 Vt x180 1 /2 x69'/4" 
Collection Roger Pailhas, Marseille 



43 



Judith 
Bartolani 



Judith Bartolani stands somewhat apart from a num- 
ber of sculptors of her generation who are preoccu- 
pied with the notion of the object. She states that, 
to the contrary, her primary concern is with space. 
The spatiality of sculpture has traditionally derived 
from the existence of volume, but for Bartolani, spa- 
tial considerations stem from a point of origin that 
is instead two-dimensional. To create volume she 
uses drawing, not to make preliminary sketches on 
paper to be realized in three dimensions, but actu- 
ally to form the foundation and structure of the work. 
In this respect, Bartolani follows the important tra- 
dition of sculptors, most notably Julio Gonzalez and 
David Smith, who literally draw in space. However, 
the iron and steel of Gonzalez, Smith and their fol- 
lowers readily lend themselves to open, linear con- 
struction, whereas Bartolani's more unorthodox 
materials, which are those of the automobile and 
aerospace industries, pose unusual challenges for 
the sculptor. 

What in essence becomes a drawing in space 
begins as a drawing on the ground. Using the studio 
floor as her work space, the artist employs carbon 
fibers as line, and epoxy and polyester resin and 
fiberglass as the binding support, which she often 
embeds with particles of stone, metal, charcoal or 
plaster, to create built-up surfaces of textured re- 
lief. The carbon fibers serve as an armature, visual 
rather than structural, and give a strong linearity to 
the forms of the works; yet they also function more 
lyrically to enliven these pieces with a rhythmic 
calligraphy. Bartolani enhances this calligraphic 
effect by drawing in charcoal or pastel on the sur- 
face of the other materials. Thus drawing, in more 
than one guise, is integral to the sculptural process. 
Additionally, although they are three-dimensional 



objects, the pieces are treated as having two pri- 
mary sides instead of many, and each side is 
worked in a completely autonomous manner. As 
Bartolani explains, "It will be another drawing in- 
spired by the same form yet with a different sensi- 
bility, because it is a different moment, a different 
feeling."' 

When the two sides of the sculpture have been 
completed, the piece is righted. The question of 
how this thin but heavy object will stand brings an- 
other set of considerations to bear, and each piece 
requires a different solution. Because the works 
tend to be off-balance from their natural centers of 
gravity, they seem unstable; the artist deliberately 
maintains this vital tension suggested by their tenu- 
ous equilibriums while enabling them to stand on 
their own. To provide balance she uses javelin-like 
metal projections, free-form stone bases or flat, 
flipper-like extensions that hug the floor. The sculp- 
tures seem to defy not only effects of equilibrium, 
but effects of weight as well. In recent works such 
as Gymnast with Pumice Stone (La Gymnastique a 
la pierre ponce) (cat. no. 25b), Bartolani inverts the 
traditional relationship between light and heavy, so 
that volcanic rocks or pumice stones are balanced 
on the upper portions or in the centers of the wafer- 
thin sculptures. How these rocks are supported is 
mystifying: the visual sensations they create are 
totally at odds with the properties of their materials. 

Bartolani's works display a grandeur and monu- 
mentally in their massive planarity, but at the same 
time, they retain a human scale. The artist says, "I 
always work in terms of walking around the sculp- 
ture (and even within it. mentally). It is this concern 
with human scale that leads me back to an interior 
space, to a kind of architectural space." 2 Despite 



44 



the fact that they are essentially planar, the sculp- 
tures force us to consider them from all angles be- 
cause their profiles change as we walk around 
them. Opaque areas of a piece are given an opaline 
finish that gleams like the inside of an oyster shell. 
In contrast, the translucent epoxy resin and the 
loosely gathered carbon fibers let light penetrate 
and allow us actually to look through the sculpture; 
and the larger negative or cutout areas also permit 
a view through the work. These elements create a 
play between solid and dissolved form in which the 
surrounding space is activated and thereby trans- 
formed. 

The artist has been inspired by her travels around 
the Mediterranean to places such as Greece, Crete, 
Spain and Italy. The pure forms and proportions of 
architecture she has seen have been particularly 
influential. She explains, "I often start from archi- 
tectural forms, a building, a plaza, an arcade, in 
Italy, for example, or in Greece. First, I perceive the 
architecture as a form-mass on a plane, as an idea 
or as impressions which I transcribe into drawings 
that, progressively simplified and reduced to essen- 
tials, are the starting point of my sculpture." 3 
Perhaps further evidence of her dependence on 
architecture as a source are the surfaces of her 
works, which often have a rough, encrusted texture 
reminiscent of ancient, crumbling walls. 

Though Bartolani's sculptures are abstract, their 
dynamic silhouettes frequently evoke recognizable 
images. In The Band of Four (La Bande des qua- 
tres), for example, an installation of four sculptures 
presented at A.R.C.A. in Marseille in 1984 (cat. 
nos. 21, 22), the impression of giant calligraphy is 
overwhelming. Yet these gestural black forms also 
suggest schematic drawings of a tree, two houses 



and a television set. Similarly, in a 1985 work, Little 
Temple (Petit Temple) (cat. no. 25a), the form of the 
house is again suggested, though here the black 
outline inscribes a richly worked interior highlighted 
with glimmering silver and gold pastel. In contrast 
to the stark angularity of these works, others are 
endowed with the fluid and organic contours of 
ellipses, disks and spirals. 

Bartolani's sculpture thrives on paradox and con- 
tradiction. Her materials are at the same time dense 
and translucent; their seeming fragility and weight- 
lessness belie great strength and heaviness. Stand- 
ing, they are precarious but remarkably stable. 
Their contours seem to store great reserves of ener- 
gy, yet at times they spring open like giant coils to 
expel their force. These are extremely powerful 
works, yet their strength and rigor coexist with 
grace and elegance. 

1. Valabreque and Partouche, Mars, 1985, p. 10. 

2. Malle and David, Judith Bartolani, Sculptures, 
1984, unpaginated. 

3. Ibid. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Haifa, July 5, 1957 

Ecole Regionale des Beaux-Arts et d'Architecture, 
Marseille-Luminy, Diplome Nationale Superieure 
d'Expression Plastique, 1979 

Prix d'Elf Aquitaine, Societe Elf Aquitaine, 
Paris, 1983 

Lives and works in Marseille 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Maison des Arts, Creteil, Situations art-regions, 
September 1980 



45 



Maison de la Culture, Villeparisis, Travaux sur 
papier objets. December 1980 

Chapelle des Cordeliers, Avignon, Midi et demi, 
July 1981 

Images Actes Lies, Marseille, Sculptures, 
March 29-April 17, 1982 

Galerie Athanor, Marseille, June 1982 

Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Paris, September 
1982. Catalogue 

Pare Chanot, Marseille, Action creation, 
October 1982 

Musee Cantini, Marseille, Marseille art present, 
March 30-April 30, 1983 
Musee des Monuments Frangais, Paris, 
Expression sculpture, October 1983 

F.R.A.C. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Marseille 
(organizer), Fonds regional art contemporain, 
1982-1983. Musee Cantini, Marseille, 1983. 
Catalogue 

Maison de la Culture, Albi, Simeon et les llamants 
roses: Jeune Sculpture europeenne, July 10- 
August 31, 1984. Catalogue with texts by Patrice 
Bloch, Achille Bonito Oliva, M. Fernandez-Cid, 
Marc Partouche and Laurent Pesenti 

Kunstlerhaus, Hamburg, Nous vivons tous aux bord 
de la mer, July 1984 

Im Klapperhof 33, Cologne, Les Six Portes de 
Babel, November 1984. Catalogue 

Musee Cantini, Marseille, Fonds regional d'art 
contemporain, November 1984. Catalogue. Traveled 
to Fondation Maeght, Saint Paul-de-Vence, 
March 1985 

Musee Andre Malraux, Le Havre, November 1984. 
Catalogue 

Renault Art et Industrie, Centre International de 
Creation Artistique, Sandouville, Scuptures dans 
I'usine, November 1984. Catalogue 

Centre National des Arts Plastiques, Paris (organ- 
izer), Le Style et le chaos, Musee du Luxembourg, 



46 



Paris, March 1-April 30, 1985. Catalogue with 
text by Jean-Louis Pradel 

F.R.A.C. Champagne-Ardenne, Epernay, Carta, 
April 20-May 1, 1985. Catalogue 

F.R.A.C. Midi-Pyrenees, Angers (organizer). Sagas, 
versant sud: Parcours dans lart d'aujourd'hui de 
Bordeaux a Nice, Palau Meca, Barcelona, June 
18-July 28, 1985. Catalogue 

Fondation Cartier, Jouy-en-Josas, Sculptures, 
October 1985-January 1986. Catalogue 

Centre de Creation Contemporaine, Tours, France- 
Tours, art actuel: Deuxieme Biennale nationale 
d'art contemporain, November 29, 1 985-January 6, 
1986. Catalogue with texts by Didier Larnac, Lo'ic 
Malle, Philippe Piguet, Delphine Renard and Jerome 
Sans and interview with Skimao by Christian Laune 

F.R.A.C. Midi-Pyrenees, Angers (organizer), 
Itineraires de versant sud. Centre Regional d'Art 
Contemporain, Toulouse, December 3, 1985- 
February 23, 1986. Catalogue 

Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York, May 1986 



Selected One-Woman Exhibitions 

Galerie Med a Mothi, Montpellier, January 1983 

Musee de Toulon, Carte Blanche a Frangois Bazzoli, 
June 16-30, 1983. Catalogue with texts by Frangois 
Bazzoli, Marie-Claude Beaud and Jean-Pierre 
Coscolla 

Galerie Gabrielle Maubrie, Paris, Judith Bartolani, 
Sculptures, May 1984. Catalogue with text by Lo'ic 
Malle and interview with the artist by Catherine 
David 

A.R.C.A. (Action Regionale pour la Creation 
Artistique), Marseille, Judith Bartolani, January 14- 
February 23, 1985. Catalogue with texts by Alin 
Alexis Avila and Loic Malle 

Galerie Catherine Issert, Saint Paul-de-Vence, 
June 1985 

Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York, February 8- 
March 1, 1986 



Selected Bibliography 

Nicolas Zafran. "Judith sculpte I'energie," 
Le Sud, June 1983, pp. 70-71 

Marc Partouche, "Les Sculptures de Judith 
Bartolani. L'Opale," Axe Sud, no. 9. Summer 1983 

Marc Partouche, "Notes sur Judith Bartolani," 
Axe Sud, no. 12, Summer 1984 

"Simeon et les flamants roses," Mars, no. 6. 
Summer 1984, pp. 38-40 

Bernard Cambon. "Jeune Sculpture contempo- 
raine," Art Press, no. 84, September 1984. p. 60 

Loi'c Malle, "Les Elans mystiques de Judith 
Bartolani," Art Press, no. 84. September 1984, p. 19 

Jean-Louis Marcos. "Judith Bartolani a I'ARCA: 
La Calligraphie de I'espace," Le Provengal, 
January 17, 1985, p. 6 

Loi'c Malle, "Judith Bartolani. Marie Jo Lafontaine, 
ARCA," Art Press, no. 90. March 1985. pp. 66. 68 

Francoise Bataillon, "Le Style et le chaos," Art 
Press, no. 92, May 1985, p. 66 

Frederic Valabreque, "La Bande des 4 . . . ," Mars, 
no. 5, Spring 1985. p. 9 

Frederic Valabreque and Marc Partouche, "Entre- 
tien avec Judith Bartolani," Mars. no. 5, Spring 

1985, pp. 10-11 

Catherine Grout. "Bartolani. Campano. Lacalmontie, 
Noel, Resal," Flash Art (France), no. 7-8, Spring- 
Summer 1985, p. 46 

Patrick Redelberg, " 'Carta,' " Art Press, no. 93, 
June 1985. p. 54 

Delphine Renard, "Sagas, Palau Meca." Art Press, 
no. 95. September 1985, p. 60 
Mona Thomas, "Judith Bartolani. Portrait." Beaux- 
Arts Magazine, no. 30. December 1985. pp. 88-89 

Catherine Grout, "Sculpture in France," Flash Art 
(International), no. 125, December 1985-January 

1986, pp. 66-69 

Catherine Grout. "Sculptures," Flash Art (France), 
no. 12, March 1986, p. 38 



Michele Cone, "Judith Bartolani: Gabrielle Bryers,' 
Flash Art (International), no. 127, April 1986, p. 70 

"Gabrielle Bryers Gallery. Judith Bartolani." 
Galeries Magazine, no. 11, April 1986, p. 40 



47 



Large Disk with Javelin (Grand Disque avec javelot). 

1983 

Fiberglas, resin, burned fabric, plexiglass and 

javelin; disk, 98%" diameter, 1 /e" deep, javelin, 

1 06 14" long 

Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 



49 



1 9 Large Ellipse (Grande Ellipse). 1 983 

Fiberglas, carbon fibers, plexiglass, steel, resin, 
mirror and pastel, 98 x 118 1 /e x 1 /a" 
Collection F.R.A.C. Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse 




50 



20 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 984 

Polyester resin, plexiglass, carbon fibers and epoxy 

resin, 109 1 A x74 7 /s x Va" 

Collection F.R.A.C. Haute-Normandie, Rouen 




51 



21 a, b Innumerable and Untitled (Innombrables and 
Sans titre). 1 984 

Innumerable (Innombrables): Epoxy resin, carbon 
fibers and charcoal, 1 14'/e x 82% x Vs" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 
Untitled (Sans titre): Epoxy resin, carbon fibers 
and steel, 1 14 1 /a x 98% x Vs" 
Private Collection 
Installation view, A.R.C.A., Marseille, 1 985 



22 a, b Cyclops and The Other Head of the Family (Cyclope 
and L' Autre chef de la famille). 1 984 
Cyclops (Cyclope): Epoxy resin, carbon and 
charcoal, 126 x 102% x29 1 / 2 " 
Collection Musee Cantini, Marseille 
The Other Head of the Family (V Autre chef de la 
famille): Epoxy resin, carbon fibers and charcoal, 
72 7 ,' 6 x7078 xVb" 

Collection F.R.A.C. Languedoc-Roussillon, 

Montpellier 

Installation view, A.R.C.A., Marseille, 1985 





53 



23 Sculpture. 1985 

Carbon fibers, resin, fiberglas and stone, 106Vi 
x94 1 / 2 x'/s" 

Collection Fonds National d'Art Contemporain, Paris 



54 




55 



24 Priestess with Snakes (La Pretresse aux serpents). 
1985 

Fiberglas. epoxy resin, Cassis stone, sandstone, 
hemp and plaster, 71 x 109 x 3 /s" 
Courtesy Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York 




56 



25 a, b Little Temple and Gymnast with Pumice Stone (Petit 
Temple and La Gymnastique a la pierre ponce). 
1985 

Little Temple (Petit Temple): Pastel, fiberglass and 
carbon fibers, 64 x 68 x Vs" 

Gymnast with Pumice Stone (La Gymnastique a la 
pierre ponce): Pumice stone, fiberglas, carbon fibers 
and epoxy resin, 71 x 121 x Vs" 
Courtesy Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York 
Installation view, Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York, 
1986 




57 



Marie 
Bourget 



Marie Bourget creates visual analogues of words. 
Her point of departure is the natural world reduced 
to such basic components as sky, sea, mountains 
and valleys, as well as simple architectural forms, 
including houses and churches, that inhabit the 
landscape. To fabricate these elements the artist 
reconstructs mental images; in this process the 
abstract, indeed universal qualities of an idea 
emerge, rather than its descriptive or pictorial char- 
acteristics. The formal purity of these images relies 
on their minimal shapes, modest materials and 
spare and symbolic color. Thus, according to Bour- 
get's sensibility, a lake is translated into a rectangle 
of blue cardboard that floats just above the floor, 
supported by four hatpins at its corners. 

Their extreme simplification and resulting concen- 
tration of meaning reduces these images to signs. 
They become, in a sense, ideographs— codes of rep- 
resentation akin to Chinese characters or Egyptian 
hieroglyphics. As one critic explains: "What we are 
dealing with here is neither the designation of a 
physical object— or its negation, this is (not) a pipe, 
nor is it the manifestation of a psychological experi- 
ence, nor expressionism, nor even of a symbolic 
description. The perceptible information which is 
presented to us— a sheet of paper painted blue- 
when coupled with the word Lake in its absence of 
available significant gives rise to an 'objective ideal 
unity. The latter serves as an intentional correlate 
of the act of perception' which is neither the signi- 
fier of the word nor the perceptible information of 
the object, 'which does not exist outside the propo- 
sition that expresses it.'' Thus, the planarity attribu- 
ted to this thing called Lake could only be pure 
'appearance,' a surface effect without depth!" 2 

Most of Bourget's forms are geometric, and each 



carries more than one association. A crenellated 
line, for example, suggests both a wavy sea and the 
roofline of a castle. In a piece entitled Valley (Val- 
lee), Bourget creates a valley by affixing to a wall 
the two ends of a horizontal length of string, and 
inflecting it with a triangular-shaped weight sus- 
pended at its midpoint. Since the triangle is used 
elsewhere in the artist's oeuvre to depict moun- 
tains, in this piece it represents both mountain and 
valley. Here, however, their normal geographic re- 
lationship is inverted— the mountain sits at the bot- 
tom of the valley, and the valley rises above the 
mountain. A triangle can also represent a steeple 
or an eave. If we compare Fabrication ot Churches 
(La Fabrication des eglises) with Painting of a High 
Mountain (Peinture de haute montagne) (cat. nos. 
27, 28), we find that the peaked forms of the church 
steeples echo those of the mountain range. This 
interplay between works is important to Bourget, 
who says, "I like to give form; perhaps a succes- 
sion of forms passing through time which speak of 
the same things that after all, make our experience 
evolve." 3 The juxtaposition also demonstrates the 
undeniable relationships between natural and man- 
made forms. For example, the mountain peak in- 
spired the church steeple and, historically, both 
have been romanticized as spiritual images. 

As we have seen in Valley, Bourget imparts a 
deeper meaning to her oeuvre through deceptively 
simple inversions of forms. Similarly, she uses fluc- 
tuating viewpoints and perspectives and deliberate 
reversals of up and down or inside and outside. She 
causes us to reflect on our own position with regard 
to the work of art, and with regard to our environ- 
ment as a whole. As the artist states, "If I place 
things upside down, it is so that the environment 



58 



will surprise me and surprise the viewer. I would 
like, through my work to lead people to look at 
things for the first time." 4 

Bourget also uses these strategies to illustrate 
the perpetual state of flux that characterizes our 
environment, and the impermanence of nature. She 
chooses images, such as sky or water, that are in- 
herently mutable. For example, in Storm (Tempete), 
a three-part piece from 1983-84 (cat. nos. 29a-c), 
both sky and lake are represented by a square of 
blue cardboard. In the component entitled Lake 
(Lac), the cardboard lies flat on a metal frame which 
is mounted on four tall legs. Next to it is Sky (del), 
in which the cardboard is placed on the ground, 
and the base (the frame and legs), although similar 
in form to that of Lake, is partially attached to the 
wall. This crucial variation in the relative disposition 
of the elements of the two pieces causes us to 
wonder what is being represented: are we seeing 
the sky reflected in the lake, and the lake reflected 
in the sky? Or has the lake, by virtue of its elevated 
position, become that which it reflects— the sky— 
and vice versa? Whereas Bourget's titles often 
clarify the meanings of her symbols, here they con- 
tribute to the state of irresolution. The third element 
of the work, itself entitled Storm, reinforces the 
transitory nature of Sky and Lake. Storm is similar 
to Lake in the arrangement of its pieces and in its 
orientation to the surrounding space, but its profile 
is more dynamic. The metal frame is tipped and thus 
creates the impression that the blue square is rock- 
ing to one side of its container and that it will even- 
tually slip from it. Ironically, Bourget gives the bases 
more importance than the almost immaterial blue 
squares that are ostensibly the subject of the piece 
—another instance of inversion at work in her art. 



Bourget's sculpture has neither volume nor mass; 
it is graphic, drawn with fine ribbons or strings, or 
thin lines of iron and steel. And in a curious inter- 
play of painting and sculpture, she often uses 
empty picture frames as structural elements (see 
cat. nos. 28, 30a). However, all of these materials 
are ultimately transcended by the purity of the art- 
ist's ideas. The installation space and the element 
of light are integral to her work. The light source 
can be contained within the sculpture, as in Draw- 
ing (Dessin) (cat. no. 26); it can be placed outside 
the confines of the piece, as in Ec/af; or its pres- 
ence can be merely suggested, as in the works that 
deal with water, fire, reflections or mirrors. In Eclat, 
for example, the circle of light cast by a nearby 
projector both illuminates the work, allowing us 
to see the simple tracings of stars created by the 
strings and pins on the wall, and defines the bound- 
aries of this celestial field. Without the light, the 
delicate and ephemeral stars might go unnoticed, 
yet in its presence, these dematerialized orbs ap- 
pear to be the source of illumination themselves. 

Although Bourget's oeuvre is purged of narra- 
tive, anecdote and discourse, it is suffused with 
poetry. Like other artists of her generation who have 
annexed the domain of Conceptual research, she 
maintains an emotional quality in her work that 
breaks stride with the historical antecedents of this 
idiom. Though her pieces are not physically impos- 
ing, they exist in strong rapport with the volumes of 
the spaces they inhabit. Indeed, because one of 
Bourget's subjects is balance, it is not surprising 
that her work exists on the precarious edge be- 
tween strength and fragility, between density and 
lightness. 



59 



1. Author's note 4, Gilles Deleuze, Logique du sens. 
Paris, 1969, p. 32. 

2. Dispositif fiction. 1986, p. 12. 

3. Art francais: Positions. 1986, p. 55. 

4. Nuridsany, Art Press. 1985, p. 36. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Bourgoin, Isere, October 6, 1952 
Lives and works in Paris 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Lyon, Lieux de relation. March 1980 

GalerieVerriere, Lyon, September 1982 

Maison de la Culture, Nevers, Le Paysage en 4 
6tats, December 1983 

Association pour I'Art Contemporain, Nevers, 
Pour vivre heureux, vivons caches, May 30- 
June30, 1984 

Le Nouveau Musee, Lyon-Villeurbanne [exhibition 
untitled], June 23-September 20, 1984. Catalogue 
with texts by Michel Claura, Bertrand Lavier, 
Jean-Louis Maubant, Sarkis and Daniel Soutif 

36, Avenue du President Wilson, Paris, Six Heures 
avant l'6te, June 20-July 20, 1985 

A.R.C., Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
Dispositif fiction, December 19, 1985-February 16, 
1986. Catalogue with texts by Claude Gintz and 
Suzanne Page 

La XLII Biennale di Venezia: Aperto 86. Mensola e 
Feritoia, June 29-September 28, 1986. Catalogue 
with text by Suzanne Page 

Selected One-Woman Exhibitions 

GalerieVerriere, Lyon. February-March 1984. 
Catalogue with text by Michel Nuridsany 

Le Coin du Miroir, Le Consortium, Dijon, La Fabri- 
cation d'un Secret, June-July 1985. Catalogue with 
text by Eric Colliard 



60 



Galerie Claire Burrus, Paris, Mon Dieu le Tableau 
Tombe! September 30-November 12, 1985 

Association pour I'Art Contemporain, 
Nevers, Plinthe, May 1986 

Galerie Andata Ritorno, Geneva. May 1986 

Selected Bibliography 

Michel Nuridsany, "Dans la lumiere de Marie 
Bourget," Art Press, no. 88, January 1985, p. 36 

Alain Coulange, "M. Verjux, M. Bourget et B. Lavier, 
objets de I'art et objets dart," Art Press, no. 90, 
March 1985, pp. 34-36 

Daniel Soutif, "Fasten Seat Belt: Marie Bourget, 
embarquement immediat," Liberation, July 3, 1985, 
p. 32 

Michel Nuridsany, "Dans la lumiere de Marie 
Bourget," Le Figaro, July 8, 1985, p. 27 

Knarf Lessour, Plus 2, January 1986, p. 27 

Francoise Woimant, "Estampes en marge." Nou- 
velles del'Estampe, no. 85, March 1986, pp. 24-26 

Olivier Lugon, "Le Paysage comme vue de I'esprit," 
Le Courrier de Geneve. May 10, 1986, p. 16 

Didier Semin, "Un Certain art francais: Quand les 
formes deviennent attitude," Art Press, no. 104, 
June 1986 



26 Drawing (Dessin). 1 985 

Painted iron and light bulb, 86% x29 1 /2 x 17Va" 
Courtesy Galerie Claire Burrus, Paris 




61 



27 Fabrication of Churches (La Fabrication des 
eglises). 1 984 

Painted iron. 69% x 120Ve x 1 1 3 /s" 
Collection F.R.A.C. Rh6ne-Alpes, Lyon 



T \\ 7l 




62 



28 Painting of a High Mountain (Peinture de haute 
montagne). 1985 

Iron, string, wood frames and glass, 137% x232'A x 4" 
Courtesy Galerie Claire Burrus, Paris 






63 



29 a-c Storm (Storm, Lake and Sky) (Tempete [Tempete, 
Lac and Ceil]). 1983-84 

Storm (Tempete). 1983-84: Iron and cardboard, 45V2 
x33% x6" 

Collection F.R.A.C. de Bourgogne, Dijon 

Lake (Lac). 1984: Iron and cardboard, 45 1 /2 x 20'/a 

x20 1 />" 

Private Collection 

Sky (del). 1984: Iron and cardboard, 45 1 /b x53 1 /» x6" 

Private Collection 




64 





65 



30 a, b Skimming the Water and Sky (A Fleur d'eau and del). 
1985 

Skimming the Water (A Fleur d'eau) (foreground): 
Wood frames and glass, two pieces, 46% x 9%" 
Collection of the artist 

Sky (del) (background): Painted iron, 85x9% x5 1 A" 
Collection F.R.A.C. lle-de-France, Pans 
Installation view, Galerie Claire Burrus, Paris, 1 985 



66 



i 




31 Complaint (Plainte). 1985 
Iron and cord, 1 1 8 x 73% x 4" 
Private Collection, Paris 




68 



32 Visualizing Time (Visualiser le temps) (detail). 1986 
String, wood and pastel, 236 1 A x 1 18" 
Association pour I'Art Contemporain, Nevers 





69 



Bernard 
Faucon 



Bernard Faucon remembers asking his mother's 
doctor for a potion that would keep him from grow- 
ing up.' His preoccupation with childhood, a child- 
hood that is at once real, lost and imagined, in- 
habits his earliest series of photographs. As the 
artist explains, "I nourish my images with a child- 
hood experience to which I always return: each time 
I set out to think of an image, I refer to a primal ex- 
perience. For me, this is a guarantee of authen- 
ticity." 2 

To represent these memories, Faucon composes 
tableaux vivants and photographs them. The pro- 
tagonists of these staged dramas are mannequins 
of young boys, elaborately made-up, coiffed and 
dressed by the artist in Bermuda shorts, sailor suits 
and the like. They act out scenes which are some- 
times straightforward— two boys staring through a 
telescope at a solitary star in the blackened sky, 
for example— but which more often are not. Fre- 
quently, the mundane nature of the narratives is 
subverted by inexplicable elements— apparitions of 
balls of fire, pieces of paper or even children flying 
through the air. What pass at first as the innocent 
and bucolic pastimes of adolescents are tainted by 
strange interventions and elemental occurrences 
which transform scenes of everyday life into mys- 
tical rituals. These are not simply memories of child- 
hood, we realize. Yet their messages remain 
obscure. 

The use of mannequins serves to heighten the 
ambiguity of the situations. In their stilted postures 
and realistic makeup they are at the same time 
lifeless and alive. Static and made of plastic, the 
figures are arranged in poses of action; yet by be- 
ing photographed they are petrified once again. 
Photographing them doubles their immobility, but at 



the same time gives them life. Their smiling faces 
and vacant stares reveal nothing of the dilemmas in 
which they are caught. As one critic observes, 
"More insidious still, the euphoric expressions fixed 
to these wax faces are quite perpetual, completely 
independent of the actions the mannequins are 
performing. What can be more disturbing than an 
expression which denies the laws of expression, 
whose immutability denies the correspondence be- 
tween the internal and the external, between cause 
and effect?" 1 Faucon further confounds the notions 
of the real and the artificial by sometimes posing a 
living boy among the mannequins. This person is 
often indiscernible at first, demonstrating how close 
the real and the artificial are to each other and, 
consequently, discrediting the real. 

Faucon's photographs are printed by the Atelier 
Fresson according to a four-color carbon process 
invented in Paris around the turn of the century by 
Theodore-Henri Fresson and carried on today by 
his grandson. This process produces qualities that 
are perfectly suited to Faucon's images. Both the 
colors and the delineation of form are muted, subtle, 
grainy and soft; they bypass harsh reality to enhance 
the effect of revery. At times, the delicacy of the 
colors seems closer in spirit to the pale washes of 
watercolor than to the mechanical process by which 
they are achieved. The particular moods of these 
works are also heightened by the lighting, which 
is always artificial, even when the scenes are pho- 
tographed outdoors in the artist's native Provence. 
The golden light seems to emanate from within the 
figures or objects themselves. It is so pervasive as 
to blur contours rather than to throw harsh shad- 
ows, and it is at once mellow and mystical. 

One of the few constants in Faucon's oeuvre is 



70 



the summer landscape of southern France. Gradual- 
ly the "human presence"— that is, the mannequins- 
has disappeared, and from 1983 forward the inan- 
imate objects, natural phenomena or even the land- 
scapes themselves have become the subjects of 
Faucon's work. Often, in earlier scenes, fire erupted 
amid groups of children at play; it assumes center 
stage in more recent works, for example The Room 
of Fire (La Chambre qui brule) (cat. no. 34), in 
which a fire of mysterious origin engulfs but does 
not burn the centrally placed table. In images such 
as these, the impenetrable riddles of the mannequin 
photographs prevail: logic is not the foundation on 
which they are built. The persistence of fire in 
Faucon's oeuvre recalls Rene Magritte's painting, in 
which fire also plays an important role. Indeed, the 
mysterious circumstances and inexplicable ele- 
ments that flood Faucon's photographs, as well as 
his exploitation of fantasy, dreams and recollec- 
tions suggest inspiration in a Surrealist heritage. 

Ultimately, the romantic landscape itself becomes 
the subject of these pictures. Faucon explains, "I do 
not crop the landscape. I seek to absorb the vastest 
landscape possible, to define a world. The compo- 
sition must be liveable, precise, but always rather 
precarious .... When everything works out, the 
scene comes to life. Not theatrically so, but like the 
life of an image whose apotheosis comes with the 
click of a shutter. Immediately after, I destroy, I 
tidy up, I remove all traces. I close my box of tricks, 
there is no going back." 4 

Faucon's most recent series is entitled Rooms of 
Love (Les Chambres d'amour) (see cat. nos. 36-38). 
What these rooms project, above all, is an aura. In 
some, the aftermath of lovemaking is implied by the 
rumpled sheets or partially revealed human torsos 



in sleeping positions. In others, the effect is more 
mysterious, as in the haunting apparition of faces 
on a floor. And sometimes the structure of the room 
itself is the subject of the work, yet here the walls 
are transformed by delicate traceries of color and 
drawing, and the floors are blanketed by burning 
embers, freshly fallen snow or dense, tall grass (see 
cat. nos. 36, 38). In all, the spaces are silent; nar- 
ration is only suggested, and the imagery is more 
reductive than in the earlier works. The romance 
of light and color alone creates the poetic expres- 
sion. As one critic has said, Faucon's intention is 
". . . to pursue the real and, by means of artifice, 
extract from it a bit of immateriality, a bit of the 
beyond." 5 

1. Summer Camp, 1980, unpaginated. 

2. Guibert, Le Monde, 1981, p. 15. 

3. Barthes, Zoom, 1979, p. 53. 

4. Summer Camp. 

5. Michelena, Bernard Faucon: Le Part du calcul, 
1985, p. 12. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Apt, Provence, September 12, 1950 

LaSorbonne, Paris, 1969-74, Maitrise (Philosophy) 

Painter, 1966-76 

Photographer, 1976-present 

Lives and works in Paris and Provence 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California, Invented 
Images, February 20-March 23, 1980. Catalogue 
with texts by Steven Cartwright and Phyllis Pious. 
Traveled to Portland Art Museum, Oregon, April 8- 



71 



May 18; Mary Porter Sesnon Art Gallery, Santa 
Cruz, California, May 28-June 21 

Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 

XI Biennale de Paris, September 22-November 2, 

1980. Catalogue 

Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York, The 

New Color: A Decade of Color Photography, 

May 15-July 26, 1981. Catalogue with text by Sally 

Eauclaire. Traveled in United States and Canada, 

1981-82 

The Friends of Photography Gallery, Sunset Center, 

Carmel, California, 4 French Photographers, 

November 6-December 6, 1981 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, In Situ: Douze Artistes pour les 
galeries contemporaines, March 25-May 31, 1982. 
Catalogue with texts by Bernard Bazile, Jacques 
Beauffet, Dominique Bozo, Louis Deledicq, Maurice 
Eschapasse, Bernard Lamarche-Vadel, Louis 
Marin, Katherine Schmidt and the artist 

Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Color as 
Form: A History of Color Photography, April 10- 
June 6, 1982. Catalogue. Traveled to International 
Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, 
Rochester, New York (organizer), July 2-September 5 

Lijnbaancentrum, Rotterdamse Kunststichting, 
Staged Photo Events, September 3-October 3, 1 982. 
Catalogue 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Recent 
Color, September 3-November 7, 1982. Catalogue 

Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Photo- 
graphie France aujourd'hui, 1982. Catalogue 

Association Tours-Art Vivant, France-Tours, art 
actuel: Premiere Biennale dart contemporain, 
Centre de Creation Contemporaine, Tours, April 22- 
May 29, 1983. Catalogue with texts by Jean- 
Christophe Ammann, Marie-Claude Beaud. Michel 
Giroud, Giovanni Joppolo, Alain-Julien Laferriere, 
Bernard Lamarche-Vadel and Jean de Loisy 

Espace Nigois d'Art et de Culture, Nice, Peindre et 
photographier, July 7-September 30, 1983. Cata- 



72 



logue with texts by Claude Fournet and Philippe 
Mezescaze 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Facets of the 
Collection: Recent Acquisitions, September 16- 
November 27, 1983 

Fundacion San Temo. Buenos Aires, Maestros de la 
Fotografia Francesa del Siglo XX, 1983. Catalogue 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges 
Pompidou. Paris, Images fabriquees. February 10- 
March 13, 1983. Catalogue. Traveled to Musee des 
Beaux-Arts, Nantes. November 4-December 23; 
Musee d'Art Actuel. Hasselt, Belgium, June 8- 
July 8, 1984 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, Drawings/ Photo- 
graphs, June 8-September 30, 1983 

Visual Arts Museum, School of Visual Arts, New 
York, New Images in Photography, March 5-24, 
1984 

Fisher Art Gallery, University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, French Spirit Today, March 19-April 
21, 1984. Catalogue with texts by Jean-Louis 
Froment and Catherine Strasser. Traveled to Mu- 
seum of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, California, 
June 16-August 3 

F.R.A.C. Champagne-Ardenne, Epernay (organ- 
izer). Images imaginees, Musee Rimbaud, 
Charleville-Mezieres, June 15-July 28, 1984; Cher- 
bourg. August 11-September 15; Niigata B.S.N. Art 
Museum, Japan. November 1984. Catalogue 

Le Nouveau Musee, Lyon-Villeurbanne [exhibition 
untitled], June 22-September 20, 1984. Catalogue 
with texts by Michel Claura, Bertrand Lavier, Jean- 
Louis Maubant, Sarkis and Daniel Soutif 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Content: A 
Contemporary Focus, 1974-1984, October 4, 1984- 
January 6, 1985. Catalogue with texts by Howard N. 
Fox, Miranda McClintic and Phyllis Rosenzweig 

Fukuo Art Museum, Japan, Contemporary Photog- 
raphy: Towards New Development, 1984. 
Catalogue 



Forum Stadtpark, Graz, Symposium uber Foto- 
grafie, 1984. Catalogue 

Metz pour la Photographie (organizer), Construire 
les paysages de la photographie: 21 Auteurs & 
plasticiens contemporains, Caves Sainte-Croix, 
Metz, 1 984. Catalogue with texts by Jean-Frangois 
Chevrier, Michele Chomette, Jean-Marc Poinsot 
and the artists. Traveled in France 
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, Sur invitation, 
1984. Catalogue 

Galerie du Musee de la Photographie, Charleroi, 
Photographie ouverte, 1985. Catalogue 

Tsukuba Museum of Photography, Japan, Paris, 
New York, Tokyo, 1985. Catalogue 

Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha, 
Guadalajara, Spain, Semana internacional de la 
totografia, 1985. Catalogue 

White Columns, New York, Signs of the Real, March 
4-29, 1986. Catalogue with text by Deborah Bershad 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris (organizer), Constructions et fictions, Fonda- 
zione Scientifica, Querini-Stampalia, Venice, June 
20-July 30, 1986; Institut Francais, Naples, October 
1-30. Catalogue with text by Regis Durand 



Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Galerie Lop-Lop, Paris, April 28-May 28, 1977 

Galerie-Librairie La Quotidienne, Aix-en-Provence, 

1977 

Galeria Fotomania, Barcelona, May 30-June 26, 

1978 

Galerie Agathe Gaillard, Paris, April 4-May 26, 

1979; 1984; Les Chambres d'amour, June-July 1986 

Castelli Graphics, New York, November 10- 

December 1, 1979; September 19-October 10, 1981; 

January 8-29, 1983; The Rooms of Love, May 2-24, 

1986 

Galerie Canon, Geneva, December 9, 1979- 

January 3, 1980 



Kunstcentrum 't Venster, Rotterdam, December 9, 
1979-January 21, 1980 

Galerie Napalm, Saint Etienne, April 9-May 18, 1981 
Galerie Junod, Lausanne, November 17-December 
24, 1981; 1983 

Galerie Paula Pia, Antwerp, February 2-March 2, 
1982 

Musee de Toulon, Bernard Faucon, December 2, 
1982-January 9, 1983. Catalogue with text by Marie- 
Claude Beaud 

Zeit-Photo-Salon. Tokyo, December 13-28, 1982 
Galerie Fiolet, Amsterdam, 1983; November 1986 
Galerie Imagique, Saint Saturin d'Apt, 1983 

Galerie Axe Actuel, Toulouse, February 5-March 

11,1985 

Houston Center for Photography, Texas, February 

28-April 6, 1985 

Galerie Images Nouvelles, Bordeaux, La Part du 
calcul dans la grace, April 1985; December 1986 

Galerie Artem, Quimper, 1985 

Galeria Modulo, Lisbon, 1985 

Galerie de Pret, Angers, 1985 

Galerie Alexandre de la Salle, Saint Paul-de-Vence, 

1985 

Musee Nicephore Niepce, Chalon-sur-Saone, 1985 

Van Reekum Museum, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands, 

1985 

Galerie Jade, Colmar, April-May 1986 

Musee d'Auriac, May-June 1986 

Centre d'Art Contemporain, Forcalquier, July- 
August 1986 

Musee de la Charite, Marseille. October 15- 
December31, 1986. Catalogue 

Galerie Fiolet, Amsterdam, November 1986 



73 



Selected Bibliography 

By the Artist 

Summer Camp, New York, 1980. French edition, 
Les Grandes Vacances, Paris, 1981 

"Les Createurs," Autrement, no. 48, 1983 

Mois de la photo, Paris, 1984 

Evolution probable du temps, Paris, 1986 

Les Papiers qui volent, Paris and Tokyo, 1986 

On the Artist 

Herve Guibert, "Bernard Faucon chez Agathe 
Gaillard: Les Plaisirs de lenfance," Le Monde, 
April 5, 1979, p. 19 

Christian Caujolle, "Les Chromos d'enfance de 
Bernard Faucon," Liberation, April 5, 1979, 
pp. 14-15 

Michel Nuridsany, "Faucon: L'Enfance revee," 
Le Figaro, April 10, 1979, p. 26 

Andre Laude, "Bernard Faucon: Chez Agathe 
Gaillard," Les Nouvelles Litteraires, no. 2684, April 
26-May3, 1979, p. 28 

Pierre Jouvet, "Faux Vrais," Le Cinematographe, 
no. 49, July 1979 

Roland Barthes, "Bernard Faucon," Zoom, no. 57, 
1979, pp. 46-53 

Madelaine Burnside, "Bernard Faucon," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 54, February 1980, p. 44 

Anthony Bannon, "Photographers' Trickery Shows 

Camera Can Lie," Buffalo Evening News. April 17, 

1980 

Janet Kutner, "Show's Photos Develop into Art," 

The Dallas Morning News, July 4, 1980, p. C10 

Luc Pinhas, "Bernard Faucon, la force du devoile- 
ment," Masques, no. 7. Winter 1980-81, pp. 116-119 

Herve Guibert. "Un Entretien avec Bernard 
Faucon." Le Monde, January 14, 1981, p. 15 

Jean-Pierre Thibaudat, "Bernard Faucon: Le 
Comble de la photographie," Liberation, January 
24, 1981, p. 16 



74 



Michel Tournier. "Chant d'amour pour les petits 
mannequins," L'Express, January 31-February 6, 

1981, pp. 108-109 

Kineo Kuwabala, "Bernard Faucon," Asahi Camera, 
October 1981 

Sally Eauclaire. The New Color Photography, New 
York, 1981 

Photography Year 1981. Alexandria, Virginia, 1981, 
pp. 12-14 

Donna-Lee Phillips, "Recent Color: The Contem- 
porary Concern," Artweek, vol. 13, September 25, 

1982, pp. 1, 16 

Nicolas A. Moufarrege, "Bernard Faucon: Summer 
Camp," Arts Magazine, vol. 57, October 1982. p. 5 

Christian Caujolle, "L'Enigme du papillon dans la 
Cene de Bernard Faucon," Anthologie de la 
Critique 82, Paris, 1982 

Christian Caujolle, "Bernard Faucon." Photomaga- 
zine. no. 37, February 1983, pp. 58-66 

"Daniel Tremblay. Bernard Faucon. Musee de 
Toulon." Art Press, no. 67, February 1983, p. 49 

Dominique Carre, "L'Enfance reinventee: Bernard 
Faucon," Beaux-Arts Magazine, no. 4. July-August 

1983, pp. 78-79 

Alain Bergala, "Le Vraix. le faux, le factice," Les 
Cahiers du Cinema, no. 351, September 1983, 
pp. 4-9 

"Figurative Contexts at Turman Gallery," Arts 
Insight, vol. 5, September 1983 

Eileen Jensen, "New Trends in Photography 
Examined," Arts Insight, vol. 5, October 1983 

Michel Nuridsany, "L'Univers reve de Bernard 
Faucon." Art Press, no. 84, September 1984, p. 25 

Herve Guibert, "Faucon linspire," Le Monde, 
November 13, 1984, p. 15 

Christian Caujolle, "Photographie, Bernard 
Faucon," Beaux-Arts Magazine, no. 18, November 

1984, pp. 58-61 

Philippe Mezescave, "Bernard Faucon: Un Oiseau 



fort," Masques, no. 21, Spring 1984, pp. 166-169 

Allen Ellenzweig, "Bernard Faucon at Gallery 

Agathe Gaillard," Art in America, vol. 73, May 

1985, p. 183 

Dave Crossley and Lynn McLanahan, "Paris in the 

Fall," Spot, Spring 1985, p. 7 

Lynn McLanahan, "Bernard Faucon: Growing Up," 

Spot, Spring 1985, pp. 8-9 

Herve Guibert, "Comment fabriquer une etoile," 
L' Autre Journal, nos. 8 and 10, 1985 

Christian Caujolle, Cliches, no. 13, 1985 

Jean-Michel Michelena, Bernard Faucon: La Part 
du calcul dans la grace, Bordeaux, 1 985 

Alexandra Anderson, "What's Hot at Foto Fest." 
American Photographer, March 1986, p. 16 



75 



33 The Broken Glass (Le Verre casse). 1 979 
Fresson color photograph, 12x12" 
Courtesy Castelli Graphics, New York 




76 



34 The Room of Fire (La Chambre qui brule). 1 981 
Fresson color photograph, 12x12" 
Courtesy Castelli Graphics, New York 




77 



35 The Eternal Life (La Vie eternelle). 1984 
Fresson color photograph, 12x12" 
Courtesy Castelli Graphics, New York 




78 



36 The Embers (The Ninth Room) (Les Braises [la 
neuvieme chambre]). 1985 
Fresson color photograph, 1 2 x 12" 
Courtesy Castelli Graphics, New York 




79 



37 The Stained Glass (The Thirteenth Room) (Le Vitrail 
[la treizieme chambre]). 1 985 
Fresson color photograph, 12x12" 
Courtesy Castelli Graphics, New York 




80 



38 The Snowstorm (The Fourteenth Room) (La 7 'em- 
pete de neige [la quatorzieme chambre]). 1985 
Fresson color photograph, 12x12" 
Courtesy Castelli Graphics. New York 



"f\ 






81 



Philippe 
Favier 



Philippe Favier's paintings exist at the limits of 
visibility. In passing, one might mistake them tor 
spots or stains on the wall. Yet if one's curiosity is 
piqued enough to make one approach closely, the 
intimacy and magic of his microcosmic world is 
revealed. 

Although their scale rarely exceeds a few inches, 
Favier's paintings on paper or glass engage the 
walls they occupy and thus take on greater di- 
mensions. So crucial is this relationship with the 
wall that the works are perhaps more accurately 
defined as installations than as paintings. Despite 
their miniscule format, they are demanding— where- 
as the totality of large-scale works can at times be 
absorbed in a passing glance, Favier's paintings 
require the viewer to take the time to approach 
and focus on their minute detail. These poetic im- 
ages reveal themselves only if one pays attention. 

There are three stages in Favier's creative pro- 
cess: first, he paints his images on paper, some- 
times building up the pigment to form a relief-like 
surface, then he meticulously cuts out the elements 
with a razor and, finally, he arranges them (with 
glue or pins) on the wall. This third, compositional 
step is the most important one because in the jux- 
taposition of the lilliputian figures and their accou- 
trements, not only does the narration develop, but 
also a sense of space and depth is created, involv- 
ing the whiteness of the blank wall. Perspective is 
rendered by decreasing the size of the figures, 
causing them to appear to recede even though they 
exist with the larger figures on a single plane, the 
wall. The painted elements thus serve only as refer- 
ence points for the total composition, leaving the 
viewer to mentally "connect the dots." 

Not only is the interrelationship of parts signifi- 



cant, but also the overall silhouette of each painting 
maintains a wholly independent function. From afar, 
these contours suggest a lively calligraphy, a lyrical 
play of spirals, arabesques and other abstract pat- 
terns. Often, however, these silhouettes reinforce 
the subjects of the works. For example, in IRIS (cat. 
no. 39) the colony of pitched tents, beach umbrellas 
and sunbathers suggests in its formation the reced- 
ing curve of the shoreline. Favier's earliest themes 
involved military combat— the arrangements resem- 
bled deployments of toy soldiers— and he sought to 
impart to them an epic quality reminiscent of nine- 
teenth-century history painting. The incongruity be- 
tween the monumentality of the subject matter and 
the diminutiveness of the scale in which it is por- 
trayed sets up an ironic tension that defies a mere 
anecdotal reading of these motifs. 

The reference in Favier's works to epic poetry is 
intentional, and for him structure and meaning in 
writing are analogous to those same elements in 
painting. For example, when asked why he works 
on such a small scale, he replied, "It is small be- 
cause I want to come as close as possible to hand- 
writing, to the writer's gesture, to the minimum 
gesture. "' As one critic noted, "To be exact, it is not 
a question of painting, but rather of plastic poems: 
figures become crowds, and crowds landscapes 
(the curve of a beach, the sinuosity of a road), a 
little like Apollinaire's calligrams, where the dispo- 
sition of the type reinforces the meaning of the 
poetic text." 2 

In 1982-83 Favier painted a series of harem 
scenes replete with all the trappings— fountains, 
palm trees, Persian carpets, decorative arches and 
columns, luscious fruits and erotic couplings (see 
cat. no. 40). In peering at these paintings from close 



82 



range, the spectator is unwittingly cast in the role of 
voyeur to these amorous acts. The marvelous intri- 
cacy, rhythmic line, decorative quality and small 
scale of the works recall the ornamental tradition of 
Islamic art— specifically Persian miniature painting. 
Iconographically and stylistically, medieval manu- 
script illumination is also evoked, and some works 
also display a kind of fantasy akin to that of me- 
dieval bestiaries. 

Favier's subjects have continued to develop in a 
more humorous and fanciful vein. His imagination 
seems boundless, particularly in the series in which 
giant fruits and vegetables— watermelons, bananas, 
cabbages, pickles and peppers— are feverishly agi- 
tated in combat with human figures. In Leeks in 
French Dressing (Et I'espoir, O Maine aigrette), for 
example, a squadron of giant leeks is attacked by 
a troop of chefs wearing the traditional white caps 
and wielding their cooking utensils as weapons. Yet 
there is also a dark side to Favier's humor that pop- 
ulates his universe with skeletons, hanged men and 
figures engaged in macabre dances of death. 

In 1985 the artist changed his medium from paper 
to glass, using irregularly shaped fragments simi- 
lar to those in the lead tracery of medieval stained- 
glass windows (see cat. nos. 44-48). Favier exploits 
the transparency of glass, painting it on both sides 
and applying a predominantly black ground on the 
verso, which is then partly scratched away with a 
needle and painted in jewel-like colors. Whereas the 
brilliance of stained glass is created by light shining 
through the glass, in these paintings it is achieved by 
the vibrant patches of color that rise from the som- 
ber background. The glass paintings are not as mi- 
croscopic in scale as the paper pieces, yet the 
miraculously fine rendering of drawn detail is un- 



paralleled in his earlier work. The same thematic 
melange of humor, drama, sex and violence inhab- 
its the glass pieces, though it is joined by more 
familiar still-life objects that seem to belong to the 
intimate autobiography of the artist. The glass frag- 
ments, each of which is an individual work, are 
dispersed randomly in constellations on the wall; 
as such, they glitter like stars. 

Recently, Favier has also produced a wonderfully 
inventive series of etchings using the lids of pre- 
served food-tins as his plates (see cat. nos. 42, 43). 
Here again he gives free rein to his imagination, 
letting the labels, shapes and origins of the tins 
suggest the images. In Imported from Spain (Importe 
d'Espagne) (cat. no. 43), for example, he uses a 
circular lid stamped with those words to create a 
bullfight scene, complete with bull, toreador and 
sombreroed spectators. The precision of his drafts- 
manship and the delicate tonal modulations in these 
prints are characteristically his own. 

Favier's oeuvre is, in one sense, deceptive. The 
simplification that we would expect from working 
on such a small scale results instead in an in- 
creased complexity. Similarly, his miniature format 
cloaks a much grander ambition— to endow these 
works with power that far exceeds their actual size. 

1. Nuther, Halle Sud, 1985, p. 2. 

2. Champey, Art Press, 1982, p. 12. 

Biographical Information 

Born in Saint Etienne, June 21, 1957 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Saint Etienne, 1979-83 
Artist in Residence, Villa Medici, Rome, 1985-86 
Lives and works in Saint Etienne 



83 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

Galerie Attitude, Strasbourg, Napalm chez Attitude, 
June 1981 

Galerie N.R.A., Paris, Cent Peintres de petit format, 
October-November 1981 

A.R.C.. Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
Ateliers 81/82, November 26, 1981 -January 3, 1982. 
Catalogue with texts by Suzanne Page and Didier 
Semin 

Galerie d'Art Contemporain des Musees de Nice, 
L' Air du temps: Aspects de la Figuration Libre en 
France. February 27-April 11, 1982. Catalogue with 
texts by Xavier Girard, Otto Hahn and Marc Sanchez 

LeNouveau Musee, Lyon-Villeurbanne, Proposition 
2, April 1982 

Art Prospect, Paris (organizer), Reseau art, posters 
and billboards commissioned for public display in 
France, June 1-15, 1982. Catalogue with texts by 
Jean-Louis Connan and Alain Garo 

Kunsthalle Nurnberg, Meister der Zeichnung, June 
1982. Catalogue with text by Maurice Eschapasse. 
Traveled to Kunstmuseum Basel, December 1982 

Musee de Toulon, Quatre Ans d'acquisitions, July 
1982. Catalogue 

A.R.C., Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
XII Biennale de Paris, October 1982. Catalogue 
with texts by Jacgues Louis Binet, Dany Bloch, 
Catherine Francblin, Monique Kissel, Carole Naggar 
and Jean-Marie Poinsot. Traveled in part to Sara 
Hildenin Taidemuseo, Tampere. Finland, January 
1983; Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, March 

Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain, Lyon, 
Figures Imposees, January 25-March 15, 1983. 
Catalogue with texts by Bernard Ceysson, Xavier 
Girard, Herve Perdriolle and Didier Semin 

Pavilion des Arts, Paris, Une Journee a la cam- 
pagne, June 9-August 28, 1983. Catalogue 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris (organizer), Arte Frances Contemporaneo, 
Museo Sivori, Buenos Aires, July 13-August 3, 1983; 



84 



Museo Nacional de las Artes Plasticas y Visuales, 
Montevideo, August 10-September 4; Museo del 
Banco Central. Lima, September 24-October 20; 
Casa de la Cultura, La Paz, November 

Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, 
Eros mythos ironie, September 1983. Catalogue 

Association "C'est rien de le dire," Rennes, La 
Douceur de I' avant-garde, 1983. Catalogue 

Centre National des Arts Plastiques, Paris (organ- 
izer), Acquisitions F.R.A.C. Rhone-Alpes 1983 (La 
Jeune Figuration actuelle), February 28-March 21, 
1984. Catalogue 

Fisher Art Gallery, University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, French Spirit Today, March 19-April 
21, 1984. Catalogue with texts by Jean-Louis Fro- 
ment and Catherine Strasser. Traveled to Museum 
of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, California, June 16- 
August 3 

Galerie C. le Chanjour, Nice, March-April 1984 

Musee Cantonal des Beaux-Arts. Lausanne, Rite 
rock reve: Jeune Peinture Irangaise, May-June 
1984. Catalogue with texts by Marie-Claude Beaud 
and Erika Billeter. Traveled to Heidelberger 
Kunstverein, June-July; Kunsthaus Aarau; Sonja 
Henies and Neils Onstads Foundation. Hovikodden. 
Norway; Nordjyllands Kunstmuseum, Aalborg, 
Denmark 

La Biennale di Venezia: Peinture en France, May 
20-September 16, 1984. Catalogue with texts by 
Daniel Abadie et al. 

Musee de Brou, Bourg-en-Bresse, La Peinture 
refiguree, June 28-September 2, 1 984 

Chapelle de la Salpetriere, Paris, 36 Artistes pour 
medecins sans trontieres, January 14-February 17, 
1985 

Centre Culturel de Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, Les 
Mille et une nuits, January 25-March 1 7, 1 985 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artisti- 
que), Paris (organizer), Exposition d'art trangais 
contemporain: Douze Artistes trangais dans 



I'espace, Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo, May 20-June 
23, 1985; O'Hara Museum, Kurachiki, July 12- 
August 4 

Zagreb Museum, French Painting 1960-1980, 
May 19.85 

Centre d'Art de Flaine, Le Frac Rhone-Alpes a 
Flaine, February 1985 

Ecole Regionale des Beaux-Arts, Saint Etienne, 
Combas, Favier, Laget, Traquandi, May 1985. 
Catalogue with texts by Eric Michaud, Didier Semin 
and Christian Tarting 

Musee Saint Pierre, Art Contemporain, Lyon, Lyon: 
Octobre des arts 1985, October 1985. Catalogue 

Villa Geo-Charles, Echirolles, Du petit, 1985 

B.I.G., Berlin, Art frangais: Positions, February 8- 
23, 1986. Catalogue with texts by Jean de Loisy and 
Hans-Peter Schwerfel and interviews with the artists 
by Philippe Cyroulnik, Jean de Loisy, Paul-Herve 
Parsy and Joelle Pijaudier 

Fondation Cartier, Jouy-en-Josas, Sur les murs, 
February 23-May 4, 1986. Catalogue 

Montrouge. XXXI Salon de Montrouge, April-May 
1986 



Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Galerie Napalm, Saint Etienne, June 1981 

Musee d'Art et d'lndustrie, Saint Etienne, Philippe 
Favier, March 29-April 30, 1982. Catalogue with 
texts by Bernard Ceysson and Gilbert Lascault 

Galerie C. le Chanjour, Nice, July 5-31, 1983 

Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris, September 17- 
October 10, 1983; September-October 1985 

Galerie Grita Insam, Vienna, November 5- 
December2, 1983 

Halle Sud, Geneva, May 7-June 2, 1985 

Galerie Alma, Lyon, Capitaine Coucou, October 2- 
31 , 1 985. Catalogue with text by Eric Darragon 

Musee de I'Abbaye de Sainte Croix, Sables-d'Olon- 



ne, Philippe Favier: 1980-1985, July 5-September 
14, 1986. Catalogue with texts by Daniel Abadie, 
Jacques Bonnaval. Louise Ferrari, Jean-Claude 
Lebensztein, Eric Michaud and Guy Tosatto. 
Traveled to Villa Arson, Nice, October 10- 
December 12; Musee de Rochechouard, Limoges 



Selected Bibliography 

Didier Semin, "Une Source de Philippe Favier," 
Avant-Guerre, no. 3, 1981 

Ines Champey, "Philippe Favier," Art Press, no. 58, 
April 1982, p. 12 

Jean-Marc Poinsot. "New Painting in France," 
Flash Art (International), no. 108, Summer 1982, 
pp. 40-44 

Herve Gauville, "Parmi cent autres, Philippe 
Favier," Liberation, October 1, 1982, p. 26 

Jean de Loisy, "New French Painting," Flash Art 
(International), no. 110, January 1983, pp. 44-48 

Christian Caujolle, "Philippe Favier, petit bon- 
homme," Liberation, October 4, 1983, p. 29 

Maiten Bouisset, "Suivez mon regard," Le Matin, 
October 14, 1983, p. 32 

Patrice Bloch and Laurent Pesenti, "Fiac, 10eme 
anniversaire: Philippe Favier," Beaux-Arts Maga- 
zine, no. 6, October 1983, pp. 54-58 

Elisabeth Couturier, "Philippe Favier, Galerie 
Farideh Cadot," Art Press, no. 75, November 1983, 
p. 52 

Jacques Bonnaval, "Philippe Favier," Axe Sud, 
no. 7, Winter 1983 

Valere Nuther, "Ce qui est dit est a retaire: Entre- 
tien avec Philippe Favier," Halle Sud, no. 8, April 
1985, pp. [2-3] 

Mireille Descombes, "Les Microcosmes de Favier," 
Tribune de Geneve, May 17, 1985 

"Miniatures, Samba figurative," L'Hebdo, May 23, 
1985, p. 83 



85 



Francoise-Claire Prodhon, "Philippe Favier," Flash 
Art (France), no. 7-8, Spring-Summer 1985, 
pp. 68-69 

"Douze Artistes dans I'espace," Art Press, no. 94, 
July-August 1985, p. 24 

Francois-Yves Morin, "Philippe Favier: La Peinture 
en minuscules," Wars, no. 6, Summer 1985 
pp. 16-17 

Olivier Cena, "Philippe Favier, Legumes etranges et 
flamant rose," Telerama, October 2, 1985, p. 45 

Henri-Frangois Debailleux, Beaux-Arts Magazine, 
no. 28, October 1985, p. 2 

Jean-Luc Chalumeau, "Et que tout soit pareil et que 
tout soit autre chose," Eighty, no. 1 1 , January- 
February 1986, pp. 60-61 

Catherine Flohic, "Portrait," Eighty, no. 11, 
January-February 1986, p. 63 

Sonia Criton, "Philippe Favier," Flash Art (France), 
no. 10, March 1986, p. 36 



86 



39 IRIS. 1981 

Acrylic on cutout paper, 5 1 /2 x 4%" 
Collection Musee de Toulon 








87 



40 Untitled (Sans f/frej. 1982 
Acrylic on cutout paper. 4 x 4" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




88 



4 1 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 985 

Acrylic on cutout paper and glass, 1 1 % x 8" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




m 



89 



42 Captain Cook (Capitaine Coucou). 1 985 
Etching, 2% x 4%" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 



43 Imported from Spain (Imports d'Espagne). 1984 
Etching, 3%" diameter 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




J&, 






1. A iS 







» 



90 



44 Self Portrait with Camembert and Cherries 
(Autoportrait au camembert et cerises). 1 985 
Stained-glass color and ceramic glaze on glass, 
4 1 A x 2%" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




91 



45 The Folding Screens (Les Paravents). 1985 

Stained-glass color and ceramic glaze on glass, 5 x 9" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




92 



46 The Folding Screens (Les Paravents). 1985 
Stained-glass color and ceramic glaze on glass, 
4% x 7" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




93 



47 Still Life with Vitamin C (Nature morte a la vit amine C) 
1986 

Stained-glass color and ceramic glaze on glass 
5'/ 2 x8 1 /." 

Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




94 



48 The Winds (Les Vents). 1 986 

Stained-glass color and ceramic glaze on glass, 
4V2 x8 1 /4" 

Collection Musee National d'Art Moderne, 
Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris 




95 



Ange 
Leccia 



Ange Leccia began making "arrangements" after 
devoting many years to painting, film, performance 
and video. In this departure from previous modes, 
he places different elements together, setting up 
relationships between them yet always preserving 
the integrity of the individual components. From the 
encounter between two objects or between object 
and space, the work of art is born. Leccia insists on 
the distinction between what he calls "arrangement" 
and installation: "To install is much more physical, 
more rigid. The word 'arrangement' implies the will 
to respect things; when I say 'arrange,' there is an 
element of modesty. I arrange = I choose. 'Ar- 
rangement' is a little like plotting one's position 
amid the stars to set one's course with a sextant: 
the precise measurement that reveals the right di- 
rection. To arrange is to establish the relationship, 
the exact position."' 

The notion of the encounter is of key significance 
in Leccia's oeuvre. Perhaps his most effective and 
indeed poignant treatment of this concept is seen 
in Arrangement "The Kiss" (Arrangement "Le 
Baiser") of 1985 (cat. no. 54). Here, two illuminated 
projector lights are stationed face to face in an 
otherwise empty space. Between these inanimate 
objects an intimate interchange, an actual physical 
contact takes place, which, as the title suggests, 
approximates the act of kissing. Further, the lights 
transmit heat, and the warmth exchanged between 
them radiates throughout the space. Confronted by 
such startling intimacy, we instinctively shrink from 
it and thus distance ourselves from the work; how- 
ever, we cannot ignore the acute human dimension 
the artist has imparted to these machines, which 
causes them to transcend their technological func- 
tion. As emotional in content as it is simple in 



means, this piece is a testament to Leccia's conten- 
tion that the role of the artist is to provoke an emo- 
tion, even with only machines at his disposal. He 
says, "I do not want to be simply a mediator of ele- 
ments; I want feeling to always be present." 2 

Leccia has extended the powerful image of the 
kiss to other situations in which the contact point 
between objects generates a similar tension and 
electricity. In a work executed at the Centre Na- 
tional d'Art Contemporain, Grenoble, in 1986 (cat. 
no. 56), the artist parked two Volvo automobiles 
head on, their front fenders just touching. The head- 
lights were fully ablaze, and the redoubled force of 
their beams produced a profound sense of energy. 
An even more majestic realization of this concept 
will be carried out later this year in Toulouse: two 
Concorde jets will be positioned so as to meet at the 
infinitesimally small points of their elegantly tapered 
beaks. Despite the aggrandizement of the images in 
these two instances, the idea retains all the clarity 
and poetry of the original conception. Leccia con- 
tinually stresses the modesty of his proposals which 
serve, in his words, "to illuminate the simplicity of 
things." 3 

Light is an essential element of the artist's 
oeuvre: it makes visible, clarifies, focuses and, fi- 
nally, dazzles. Leccia describes his light as ". . . 
light that is domesticated yet which retains its orig- 
inal powers: to caress the retina, to dazzle. It is 
concentrated energy."' 1 Light is the protagonist of 
Arrangement, 1984 (cat. no. 50), in which the artist 
positions two slabs of marble on the floor; from the 
end of one of these slabs, a portion has been cut 
away. He directs the light of a projector to strike 
this void, thereby re-creating the missing section. In 
this instance, the power of the light is used to reunite 



96 



the two segments, to make the marble whole again. 
Despite its immateriality, the light seems as substan- 
tial as the stone it replaces. Similarly, in Arrange- 
ment, 1985, Leccia uses projectors to beam light at 
the lowest level of a stack of cement blocks, thus 
creating the illusion that the weighty bricks are 
floating on a base of light. Here the artist was at- 
tracted by the notion of uniting objects that are in- 
volved in some way with construction: a projector 
gives form to images; a brick is a building material. 
He says of this work, "I had to find the arrangement, 
the exact position, bring about the meeting. Each 
time is a confrontation with oneself, a calling into 
question; I have to find the precise point where 
things marry." 5 

In his use of film projectors Leccia has shown us 
that practically any material can accept projected 
light. He continues his explorations in this vein 
working with screens. For example, the artist is 
fascinated by television "snow"— the crackling gri- 
saille created on a screen when there is no pro- 
gram. In Arrangement, 1985 (cat. no. 53), he places 
an illuminated television inside a well-like structure 
of concrete blocks; more blocks are heaped inside 
the well, almost completely burying the television 
so that only a portion of its screen remains visible. 
The sound of the static produced by the snow 
evoked running water, and the blue light reinforced 
this metaphor, suggesting a deep pool of water. In 
Arrangement "Seance" (cat. no. 55) Leccia placed 
fifty projectors on fifty chairs set up in rows. Though 
empty of film, all the machines were running, shin- 
ing their beams directly onto the backs of the chairs 
—the screens— in front of them. The vibrating pro- 
jected light became the image, which in concert 
with the steady hum of the machines released a 



palpable energy that filled the auditorium-like 
space. Leccia evoked the tension peculiar to a 
movie theater, re-creating without human presence 
the attentive audience focused on the image on the 
screen before it. In a more sculptural variation on 
this theme, Leccia erected an imposing column of 
steel-gray film canisters. Within this hollow form he 
placed a running projector, so that the approaching 
viewer would be drawn to the clicking sound that 
echoed inside the walls. The impression created 
was that of a beating heart, a palpitating warmth 
that contrasted strikingly with the cold and austere 
metal casing. The rapport between the film can- 
isters and the projector is re-created in Arrange- 
ment, 1986 (cat. no. 52), which involves televisions 
and their cardboard packing-cases. Here again, 
with materials of modern technology, Leccia forges 
a primitivistic totem. Four televisions are situated at 
the base of a stack of their cartons. They face in- 
ward and, denied the opportunity of projecting an 
image, emit a diffuse light that transforms the 
mundaneness of the cardboard and thus reverses 
the hierarchy of importance that normally exists 
between an object and its packaging. 

Images never appear in Leccia's oeuvre. His work 
is based on blank screens, televisions without pro- 
grams, sounds without messages, lights that merely 
illuminate other lights. He uses objects that tra- 
ditionally give access to images and sounds, yet he 
denies us this access. Leccia searches for some- 
thing more profound than narration, and discovers it 
in the simplicity and poetry of his unique vision. 

1. Interview with the artist by Laurence Bosse and 
Suzanne Page in Ange Leccia, 1985, unpaginated. 

2. Ibid. 



97 



3. Ibid. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Ibid. 

Biographical Information 

Born in Minerviu, Corsica, April 19, 1952 

Lycee Artistique de Bastia, Corsica, 1962-71 

Faculte des Arts Plastiques, Paris l-Saint Charles, 

1972-76 

Artist in Residence, Villa Medici, Rome, 1981-83 

Lives and works in Paris 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Ridotto Venier, Venice, June 1982 

Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna. Rome, Quattro 
Accademie Straniere, July 28-October 30, 1 982. 
Catalogue 

Villa Medici, Rome, Nell' Arte: Artisti italiani e 
francesi a Villa Medici, June 8-July 8, 1983. Cata- 
logue with text by Achille Bonito Oliva 

Institut Curie, Paris, A Pierre et Marie: Une Exposi- 
tion en travaux, December 4, 1983-October 21, 1984 

Palazzo di Citta, Acireale, Sicily, La Scuola di 
Atene, December 1983. Catalogue with texts by 
Achille Bonito Oliva and Jean-Louis Maubant. 
Traveled to Galleria Borghese, Rome, February 
1984; Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna, Palazzo dei 
Diamanti, Ferrara, March 

Le Nouveau Musee, Lyon-Villeurbanne [exhibition 
untitled], June 23-September 20, 1984. Catalogue 
with texts by Michel Claura, Bertrand Lavier, Jean- 
Louis Maubant, Sarkis and Daniel Soutif 

F.R.A.C. Aquitaine, Bordeaux (organizer), Lumieres 
et sons, Chateau de Biron, Dordogne, June 23- 
September 22, 1984 

Pavilion des Arts, Paris, Generation Polaroid, 
February 14-March 17, 1985. Catalogue with text by 
Michel Nuridsany 

Kulturhuset Galleriet, Stockholm, En ny Generation 



98 



i transk konst, March 8-May 27, 1985. Catalogue 
with texts by Beate Sydhoff and Henri Sylvestre 

F.R.A.C. Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse (organizer), 
Sagas, versant sud: Parcours dans I'art d'aujourd' 
hui de Bordeaux a Nice, Palau Meca, Barcelona, 
June 18-July 28, 1985. Catalogue 
36, Avenue du President Wilson, Paris, Six Heures 
avant fete, June 20-July 20, 1985 

Galerie Montenay-Delsol, Paris, June 30-July 31 , 

1985 

Musee Municipal de La Roche-sur-Yon, Sols/Murs, 

September 13-October 19, 1985. Traveled to Musee 

Ancien Eveche, Evreux, November 15, 1985- 

January 5. 1986 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 
Ateliers internationaux des Pays de la Loire, 
Abbaye Royale de Fontevraud, October 19- 
November 21,1 985. Catalogue with texts by Pierre 
Giguel, Patrick Javault and Jean de Loisy 

Centre de Creation Contemporaine, Tours, France- 
Tours, art actuel: Deuxieme Biennale nationale d'art 
contemporain, November 29, 1985-January 6, 1986. 
Catalogue with texts by Didier Larnac, Loi'c Malle, 
Philippe Piguet, Delphine Renard and Jerome Sans 
and interview with Skimao by Christian Laune 

B.I.G., Berlin, Art Irancais: Positions, February 8-23, 

1986. Catalogue with texts by Jean de Loisy and 

Hans-Peter Schwerfel and interviews with the artists 

by Philippe Cyroulnik, Jean de Loisy, Paul-Herve 

Parsy and Joelle Pijaudier 

Sala Una, Rome, lei Rome . . . A vous Paris, March 

1-22, 1986 

Centre National d'Art Contemporain, Grenoble, 

April 26-May 25, 1986. Catalogue 

Maison de la Culture de Rennes, Au seuil de I'om- 

bre, April 25-May 25, 1986. Catalogue 

Le Nouveau Musee, Lyon-Villeurbanne, Collection 
souvenir, April 30-September 21, 1986 

Castello di Canino, Volci, Italy, Mandelzoom, June 
21-October 1986. Catalogue with text by Antonio 
d'Avossa 



Le Centre Culturel and Passages. Troyes. Obscur- 

Obscurite-Obscurcissement. June 25-August 29. 

1986 

La XLII Biennale di Venezia: Aperto 86. Nuit bleue, 

June 29-September 28. 1986. Catalogue with texts 

by Suzanne Page and Daniel Soutif 

Centre International d'Art Contemporain. Montreal. 
Lumieres: Perception, projection, August 1- 
November2. 1986. Catalogue 

Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Galerie du Haut Pave. Paris, May 1 3-June 7, 1 980 

Galerie Lucien Durand, Paris, March 19-April 11. 
1981 ; February 7-March 10, 1984. Catalogue with 
text by Marie-Laure Bernadac 

Galleria Arco d'Alibert, Rome. October 25- 
December 1983 

Galleria Deambrogi, Milan, June4-July 4, 1984 

Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain. Lyon, 
February 25-March 10, 1985 

A.R.C.. Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
Ange Leccia, June 27-September 22, 1985. Cata- 
logue with texts by Laurence Bosse and Suzanne 
Page 

Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Macon, Ange Leccia, Oc- 
tober 7-November 10, 1985. Catalogue with texts 
by Jean-Louis Maubant and Ida Minnini 

College of Art and Design, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Canada, June 1985 

Atheneum, Dijon, November 13-December 10, 1985 

Galerie Arlogos, Nantes, February 22-March 22, 
1986 

Selected Bibliography 

Jean-Marie Tasset, "Leccia: Un Point c'est tout," 
Le Figaro, April 1, 1981, p. 23 

Mai'ten Bouisset, "Ange Leccia," Le Matin, April 
4, 1981 

Claude Bouyeure, "Ange Leccia," Politique Hebdo, 
April 28, 1981 



Orsan. "Ange Leccia," Rock en stock, April 1981 

Lorenzo Mango, "I! ricordo dell'occhio," Paese 
Sera. November 15. 1983 

David O'Brien, "The Roman Art Scene," Da/7y 
American. November 24, 1983 

Lisa Licitra Ponti. "Fame 5," Domus. no. 643, 
October 1983. p. 74 

Jean-Marie Tasset. "Leccia: Point a I'image,'' Le 
Figaro. February 10, 1984, p. 24 

Jean-Pierre Bordaz, "Ange Leccia," Beaux-Arts 
Magazine, no. 10. February 1984. p. 84 

Gaya Goldcymer. "Ange Leccia: D'Une Memoire a 
I'autre," Art Press, no. 82, June 1984, p. 19 

Catherine Strasser, "Histoire de sculptures/ 
Lumieres et sons." Art Press, no. 84. September 
1984, p. 47 

Arielle Pelenc, "Pour en finir avec la betise du 
peintre." Artistes, no. 24, October 1984, pp. 110-115 

Florence Sebastiani, "Video a la Villa Medicis," 
Sonovision. no. 269. 1984 

Daniel Soutif. "Ange Leccia, artiste corse." Libera- 
tion, August 14. 1985, p. 24 

Elisabeth Lebovici, "L'Anemique Cinema d'Ange 
Leccia," L'Evenement du Jeudi, August 1985 

Delphine Renard, "Sagas. Palau Meca," Art Press, 
no. 95. September 1985. p. 60 

Catherine Francblin, "Anselmo. Leccia. Weiner," 
Art Press, no. 96, October 1985, p. 70 

Corinne Pencenat, "Six Heures avant I'ete." Art 
Press, no. 96, October 1985, p. 70 

Mona Thomas, "Ange Leccia, portrait," Beaux-Arts 
Magazine, no. 30. December 1985. pp. 90-91 

Philippe Piguet, "Ange Leccia," Flash Art (France), 
no. 9, Autumn 1985, p. 31 

Michel Nuridsany, "Ange Leccia: L'Ecran du reve," 
Public, no. 3, 1985, pp. 66-69 

Pierre Giquel, "Philippe Dufour, Ange Leccia: 
Galerie Arlogos," Art Press, no. 103, May 1986. 
p. 66 



99 




hi 

I - 1 


— — , 



49 Arrangement. 1983 

Videoprojection, Villa Medici, Rome 



101 



50 Arrangement. 1 984 

Marble slabs and film projector 

l_e Nouveau Musee, Lyon-Villeurbanne 




102 



51 Arrangement. 1985 

Cement blocks and film projectors 
Kulturhuset Galleriet, Stockholm 




103 



52 Arrangement. 1 986 

Televisions and cardboard packing cartons 
Sala Una, Rome 




104 



53 Arrangement. 1 985 

Cement blocks and television 
Galerie Montenay-Delsol, Paris 




105 



54 Arrangement "The Kiss" (Arrangement « Le 
Baiser »). 1 985 
Cremer projector lights 
Courtesy Galerie Montenay-Delsol, Paris 




106 



55 Arrangement "Stance." 1985 
Film projectors and chairs 
A.R.C., Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 




107 



56 Arrangement. 1 986 
Volvo cars 
Centre National d'Art Contemporain, Grenoble 



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108 



57 Arrangement. 1986 

Televisions, cardboard packing cartons and voile 
Palazzo delle Prigioni, La XLII Biennale di Venezia 




109 



Georges 
Rousse 



Georges Rousse has chosen to locate his studio 
amid ruins— not those of antiquity, but those of the 
modern world, such as abandoned factories, ware- 
houses, airplane hangars, that bear the scars of 
their former occupants. These sites, condemned to 
demolition, are given one last (and lasting) incar- 
nation by the artist. Working with the materials of 
the ruins, with their light and colors, with their own 
particular poetry, Rousse evokes their former states 
and invests them with new life in his large-scale 
color photographs. He explains, "Abandoned build- 
ings, mostly closed and forbidden, have always fas- 
cinated me as playgrounds and adventure spots. 
Places to dream but also disturbing, where you 
never know what you are going to discover nor 
whether they are inhabited or visited, with strange 
atmospheres and a strong emotional impact .... 
These places where I work provoke a shock which 
will be transformed into a story, a vision, without 
really knowing whether what I recount is linked to 
the place or to myself."' 

To effect this transformation, Rousse paints or 
affixes painted paper on the interior surfaces of 
these structures— walls, floors, windows, ceilings, 
pillars and staircases are all eligible supports. These 
interiors and their painted elements are never di- 
rectly revealed to the public eye, however. Rousse 
photographs them, and the photographic represen- 
tation alone constitutes the work of art. It is the 
intervention of the camera that imbues both the 
painting and the environment itself with signifi- 
cance. The artist imposes his point of view on us 
through the photograph— in the framing, focus and 
use of close-up or long shot. By choosing to reveal 
only a glimpse of the environment in its current 
transformed state, Rousse invites us to view a mo- 



ment in time, forever captured. And then the bull- 
dozers arrive. 

In form and iconography, Rousse's painted sub- 
jects are adapted to the architectural components 
upon which they are imposed. From 1981 to 1984 
his emphasis was on the figurative, in the spirit of 
the prevailing Neo-Expressionist style (see cat. no. 
58). In these works the bold shapes, expressive sil- 
houettes and jarring colors of the figures blend with 
the particular texture of the decaying walls, peeling 
paint and rotted beams of the interiors they inhabit. 
Like giant phantoms that have invaded these de- 
serted places, the figures revive the space with their 
acrobatic maneuvers. Their distorted bodies, fore- 
shortened and elongated at the same time, resist 
the pull of gravity and float weightlessly. Even the 
click of the shutter does not rob them of their free- 
dom and spontaneity. 

Since 1984 the pictorial aspect of Rousse's 
oeuvre has given way to a more complex and ab- 
stract orientation. Simple geometric forms such as 
arches, crosses, cones and cubes play against the 
architectural elements of the spaces to create 
trompe I'oeil perspectival effects. These forms, 
drawn in colored chalks, have an immateriality by 
virtue of the semitransparent skeins of cross-hatch- 
ing that define them. Like the earlier painted fig- 
ures, they seem to float, disembodied. Yet their 
fictive volumes are superimposed on real volumes 
—for example the two intersecting v-shaped forms 
that encase the column in Untitled (Sans titre), Paris, 
1984 (cat. no. 60)— to create a powerful illusion. In 
this photograph the complex geometric shape ap- 
pears to exist in three dimensions in the center of 
the room even though it is drawn in two dimensions 
on different horizontal and vertical surfaces. The 



110 



optical reconstruction is achieved through anamor- 
phosis from the fixed, specific viewpoint of the 
camera eye. Thus the configuration remains un- 
crystallized except when seen from the one point 
of view the camera allows. Rousse's more recent 
work involves a further complication of perspective 
through the use of mirrors. In works such as Un- 
titled (Sans titre), Geneva. 1985 (cat. no. 63), he 
draws his geometric forms behind as well as in 
front of the camera. He then places mirrors (in this 
case, two) in the space in front of the camera in 
order to capture both the real and reflected images 
on the single plane of the photograph. By varying 
the size and arrangement of the mirrors, Rousse is 
able to extend his complex and exciting explora- 
tions of space and light. 

Not only the optical illusions but also the magic 
and suggestive qualities of his color and light dis- 
tinguish Rousse's latest work from his earlier en- 
deavors. Although the range of colors of chalk is 
limited, he endows these scenes with a light that 
seems to absorb the local colors of the site and 
synthesize them, creating the monochromatic but 
richly graded tonality of the final print. At this point, 
color and light become inseparable. 

Rousse has said that photography is for him a 
means of gathering together diverse experiences. 
And it is indeed true that his creative process in- 
volves painting, sculpture, installation and photog- 
raphy. Yet it is only through the unique perception 
of the camera that these media coalesce into the 
final image. By abolishing the distinction that sepa- 
rates original work and photographic reproduction. 
Rousse seeks to give new definition to the possi- 
bilities of photography. 

1 . Art frangais: Positions, 1 986, p. 107. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Paris, July 28. 1 947 

Grant from French Government to work at P.S. 1 , 

The Institute for Art and Urban Resources, Long 

Island City, New York. 1 982 

Drawings Prize, XXXI Salon de Montrouge, May 

1986 

Lives and works in Paris and Rome 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Galerie de France, Paris, Des photographies dans 

les paysages, April-May 1981 

Galerie d'Art Contemporain des Musees de Nice, 

L'Air du temps: Aspects de la Figuration Libre en 

France, February 27-Aprii 11, 1982. Catalogue with 

texts by Xavier Girard, Otto Hahn and Marc Sanchez 

Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris. Un Regard autre II, 

February-March 1982 

Art Prospect, Paris (organizer), Reseau Art, posters 

and billboards commissioned for public display in 

France, June 1-15, 1982. Catalogue with texts by 

Jean-Louis Connan and Alain Garo 

Montrouge, XXVII Salon de Montrouge, June 1982 

Nicola Jacobs Gallery, London, June 1982 

Musee de Toulon, Quatre Ans d acquisitions, 

July 1982. Catalogue 

A.R.C.. Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 

XII Biennale de Paris, October 1982. Catalogue with 

texts by Jacques Louis Binet, Dany Bloch, Catherine 

Francblin. Monique Kissel, Carole Naggar and 

Jean-Marc Poinsot. Traveled in part to Sara Hildenin 

Taidemuseo, Tampere, Finland, January 1983; 

Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, March 

Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain, Lyon, Figures 

imposees, January 25-March 20, 1983. Catalogue 

with texts by Bernard Ceysson, Xavier Girard, 

Herve Perdriolle and Didier Semin 

Kunstlerhaus, Stuttgart, Au pied du mur, 

January 1983 



111 



Musee de Nice. 10 Ans d'acquisitions, January 1983 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, Images fabriquees, February 10- 
March 13. 1983. Catalogue. Traveled to Musee des 
Beaux-Arts, Nantes, November 4-December 23; 
Musee d'Art Actuel, Hasselt, Belgium, June 8- 
July8, 1984 

Galerie Athanor, Marseille, Marseille art present, 
February 31-April 30, 1983. Catalogue 

Centre de Creation Contemporaine, Tours, France- 
Tours, art actuel: Premiere Biennale d'art con- 
temporain, April 22-May 29, 1983. Catalogue with 
texts by Jean-Christophe Ammann, Marie-Claude 
Beaud, Michel Giroud, Giovanni Joppolo, Alain- 
Julien Laferriere. Bernard Lamarche-Vadel and 
Jean de Loisy 

Gabrielle Bryers Gallery, New York. May 1983 

Musee Sainte-Croix. Poitiers, Photographies de la 
collection Bernard Lamarche-Vadel, May-June 1983. 
Catalogue with texts by A. Class and Bernard 
Lamarche-Vadel 

Galerie Verriere, Lyon, Propositions 83, June 1983 

Musee des Augustins, Toulouse, Trace empreintes, 
June 1983 

Espace Nigois d'Art et de Culture, Nice, Peindre et 
photographier, July 7-September 30, 1983. Cata- 
logue with texts by Claude Fournet and Philippe 
Mezescaze 

A.F.A.A. (Association Francaise d'Action Artistique). 
Paris (organizer), Arte Frances Contemporaneo, 
Museo Sivori, Buenos Aires, July 13-August 3, 1983; 
Museo Nacional de las Artes Plasticas y Visuales, 
Montevideo, August 10-September 4; Museo del 
Banco Central, Lima, September 24-October 20; 
Casa de la Cultura, La Paz, November 

Musee de Bourbon-Lancy, Nouvelle peinture, 
July 1983 

Zabriskie Gallery, New York, Three French Artists, 
July-September 1983 

Art Prospect, Paris (organizer), Reseau Art 83, 



112 



posters and billboards commissioned tor public 
display in France, August 1-15, 1983 

A.F.A.A. (Association Francaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris (organizer). New French Painting, Riverside 
Studios, London, October 1983; Gimpel Fils, 
London, November 22-December 22; Museum of 
Modern Art, Oxford, January 22-March 25, 1984; 
John Hansard Gallery, University of Southampton, 
May 8-June 9; Fruitmarket Gallery, Edinburgh, 
June 30-August 4. Catalogue with texts by Bernard 
Ceysson, Marco Livingstone and Jerome Sans 

Galerie Krinzinger, Innsbruch, Neue Bilder aus 
Frankreich, November 1983. Traveled to Kunst- 
verein, Frankfurt, December 1983 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud, Nouvelles 
Acquisitions du F.R.A.C. des Pays de la Loire, 
January 13-February 3, 1984 

Hotel de Ville, Paris, France, une nouvelle 
generation, January-March 1984. Catalogue with 
text by Catherine Millet 

Centre National d'Art Contemporain, Paris, 
Acquisitions F.R.A.C. Rhone-Alpes, February 1984 

Fisher Art Gallery, University of Southern Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, French Spirit Today, March 19- 
April 21, 1984. Catalogue with texts by Jean-Louis 
Froment and Catherine Strasser. Traveled to Mu- 
seum of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, California, 
June 16-August 3 

Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, The Fifth 
Biennale of Sydney. Private Symbol: Social Meta- 
phor, April 11 -June 17, 1984. Catalogue with texts 
by Stuart Morgan, Annelie Pohlen, Jean-Louis 
Pradel, Carter Ratcliff and Netty Richard 

Maison de la Culture de Saint Etienne, Murs blancs 
pour une chambre noire, April 1984 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris, and Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Am- 
bientali, Rome (organizers), Individualites, artisti 
Irancesi d'oggi, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, 
Rome, May 29-July 22, 1984 
F.R.A.C. Lanquedoc-Roussillon, Montpellier, 



Rencontres Internationales de la photographie et 
de I'audiovisuel, May 1984 

Kunstmuseum Basel, Perspectives, June 14-18, 1984 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, The Human 
Condition: S.F.M.M.A. Biennial III, June 28-August 
26, 1 984. Catalogue with texts by Achille Bonito 
Oliva, Wolfgang Max Faust, Edward Kienholz, 
Dorothy Martinson and Klaus Ottman 

Musee de Brou, Bourg-en-Bresse, La Peinture 
refiguree, June 28-September 2, 1984 

Galerie C. le Chanjour, Nice, June 1984 

Galerie d'Art Contemporain des Musees de Nice, 
Nice: L'Art contemporain au musee, September 29- 
November 18, 1984 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Content: A 
Contemporary Focus, 1974-1984, October 4, 1984- 
January 6, 1985. Catalogue with texts by Howard 
N. Fox, Miranda McClintic and Phyllis Rosenzweig 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 
/ Ateliers internationaux de Fontevraud, Abbaye 
Royale de Fontevraud, October 27-December 1 1 , 
1984. Catalogue with texts by Michel Enrici, 
Bernard Martin et al. 

Fondation Charles Jourdan, Paris, L' Hotel revisite, 
October 1984 

Cabinet des Estampes, Geneva, Nouvelles 
Acquisitions, November 1984 

Pavilion des Arts, Paris, Generation Polaroid, Feb- 
ruary 14-March 17, 1985. Catalogue with text 
by Michel Nuridsany 

Centre National des Arts Plastiques, Paris (organ- 
izer), Le Style et le chaos, Musee du Luxembourg, 
Paris, March 1 -April 30, 1985. Catalogue with text 
by Jean-Louis Pradel 

Kiinstlerwerkstatt, Munich, Rendez-vous, April 30- 
May 27, 1985. Catalogue with text by Marie-Luise 
Syring 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris (organizer), Exposition d'art frangais con- 



temporain, douze artistes frangais dans I'espace, 
Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo, May 20-June 23, 1985; 
O'Hara Museum, Kurachiki, July 12-August 4 

Porin Taidemuseo, Finland, International Photog- 
raphy Today, May 23-July 14, 1985 

Galerie Pierre Lescot, Paris, Telephone graffiti, 
June5-July 12, 1985 

Maison des Arts, Belfort, Les Territoires de la 
Biennale, June 1985 

Chiostri della Logetta Lombardesca, Ravenna, 
Amiottanta, July 4-September 30, 1 985. Catalogue 
with texts by Daniel Abadie and Susanna Zanuso 

Musee de I'Hospice Comtesse, Lille, Collection de 
F.R.A.C. Nord-Pas de Calais, November 9- 
December30, 1985 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, Photographie contemporaine en 
France, November 28, 1984-January 27, 1985. 
Catalogue with texts by Agnes de Gouvion St. Cyr 
and Alain Sayag 

Galerie Nationale du Grand-Palais, Paris, Anciens 
et nouveaux, November 1985 

Musee d'Art Contemporain de Bordeaux, Aimer les 
musees, November 1985 

B.I.G., Berlin, Art frangais: Positions, February 
8-23, 1 986. Catalogue with texts by Jean de Loisy 
and Hans-Peter Schwerfel and interviews with the 
artists by Philippe Cyroulnik, Jean de Loisy, 
Paul-Herve Parsy and Joelle Pijaudier 

Villa Arson, Nice, Pictura Loguens: 25 Ans d'art en 
France vu par Gerard Georges Lemaire, February 
15-April 13, 1986 

Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et 
Plastiques, Paris, Creations Pour un F.R.A.C. (Pays 
de la Loire), April 29-June 8, 1986 

Galerie C. le Chanjour, Nice, April 1986 

Montrouge, XXXI Salon do Montrouge, 
April-May 1986 

Comunedi Milano (orga lizer), Arte in Francia: 



113 



1960-1985. Palazzo Reale, Milan, June 30- 
September 7, 1986 

C.I.R.V.A. (Centre International de Recherche sur 
le Verre et I'Art), Aix-en Provence, Atout Verre, 
July 1 1-September 30, 1986 

Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Cabinet des Estampes, Bibliotheaue Nationale, 
Paris, Georges Rousse, December 7, 1981- 
January 23. 1982 

Nicola Jacobs Gallery, London, Georges Rousse, 
February 1982 

Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris, Georges Rousse, 
January 8-February 1, 1983; September 15- 
October 15, 1984; November 16, 1985-January 15, 
1986; September-October 

Centre des Arts Plastiques Contemporains, Musee 
d'Art Contemporain de Bordeaux, Georges Rousse, 
Photographies, March 18-April 23, 1983 

Galerie Grita Insam, Vienna. Georges Rousse, 
January 1984; Georges Rousse Kunst Raum Wien, 
November 5-December 5, 1985 

The Quay Gallery, San Francisco, Georges Rousse, 
March 5-30, 1984 

Comedie de Caen, Centre Dramatique National de 
Normandie, Georges Rousse, April 2-30, 1984 

Musee Municipal de La Roche-sur-Yon, Georges 
Rousse, May 16-June 16, 1984. Catalogue with text 
by Catherine Strasser 

Galerie Michael Haas, Berlin, Georges Rousse, 
July 1984 

Halle Sud, Geneva, Georges Rousse, September 
7-30, 1984 

Annina Nosei Gallery, New York, Georges Rousse, 
September 11 -October 11, 1984 

Mendelsohn Gallery, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania, 
September 1984 

Musee des Beaux-Arts d'Orleans, Georges Rousse, 
April 19-June 3, 1985. Catalogue with interview 
with the artist by Jean de Loisy 



114 



Galerie Graff, Montreal, Georges Rousse, 
photographies, May 29-June 26, 1985 
Association du Mejan, Aries (organizer). Georges 
Rousse, Eglise Saint Martin-du-Mejan, May 1 7- 
July 15, 1986 

Selected Bibliography 

Michel Nuridsany, "Georges Rousse," Art Press, 
no. 58, April 1982. p. 20 

Xavier Girard, "Un Regard autre II: Galerie Farideh 
Cadot." Art Press, no. 59, May 1982, p. 48 

Jean de Loisy, "L'Air du temps," Flash Art 
(International), vol. 16, May 1982, pp. 56, 58 

Laurent Pesenti, "Georges Rousse," Artistes, 
no. 11, June-July 1982, pp. 37-38 

Michel Nuridsany, "L'Euphorie." Le Figaro, 
October 6, 1982, p. 26 

"Georges Rousse, Biennale de Paris," Axe Sud, 
Autumn 1982 

Michel Nuridsany, "Georges Rousse, un baroque 
flamboyant," Le Figaro, January 19, 1983, p. 26 

Philippe Dagen, "Rousse," Le Quotidien de Paris, 
January 20, 1983 

Olivier Cena, "Expo," Telerama, no. 1724, 
January 26, 1983 

Genevieve Breerette, "Georges Rousse: Figures de 
I'ephemere," Le Monde, January 27. 1983, p. 16 

Maiten Bouisset, "Georges Rousse: Une Photogra- 
phie pour un instant de peinture," Le Matin, 
January 28, 1983, p. 36 

Jean de Loisy, "New French Painting," Flash Art 
(International), no. 110, January 1983, pp. 44-48 

Michel Nuridsany, "Georges Rousse: Un Baroque 
epris de synthese," Art Press, no. 66, January 
1983, pp. 28-29 

Didier Arnaudet, "Georges Rousse," Art Press, 
no. 70, May 1983, p. 48 

Olivier Cena, "Une Fin de siecle est difficile," 
Telerama, no. 1729, March 1983 



Georgina Oliver, "Georges Rousse: From Shambles 
to Success," Images, no. 10, April 1983, pp. 60-61 

Didier Arnaudet, "Georges Rousse, C.A.P.C.," 
Art Press, no. 70, May 1983, p. 48 

Patrice Bloch and Laurent Pesenti, "Georges 
Rousse, un timide sur de lui," Beaux-Arts Magazine, 
no. 2, May 1983, pp. 82-87 

Delphine Renard, "Georges Rousse, Farideh 
Cadot," Flash Art (International), no. 112, May 
1983, p. 74 
Brigitte Cornand, "Visions," Actuel, June 1983 

Dorian Paquin, "L'Ultime creation," L'Officiel, 
no. 692, May 1983, pp. 150-153 

Hans-Peter Schwerfel, "Malen macht wieder 

spass," Art, Das Kunst Magazin, June 1983, 

pp. 84-93 

Aude Bodet, "Entre chien et loup," Cover, no. 7, 

Spring 1983, p. 30 

Michael Brenson, " 'Three French Artists' at 

Zabriskie Gallery," The New York Times, August 5, 

1983, section C, p. 19 

Andy Grundberg, "In the Arts: Critics' Choices," 
The New York Times, August 7, 1983, section 
2A, p. 3 

Kim Levin, "Three French Artists," The Village 
Voice, August 9, 1983, p. 56 

Catherine Nadaud, "Francois Boisrond, Herve di 
Rosa et Georges Rousse: Trois Peintres francais 
a New York," Les Nouvelles Litteraires des arts, 
des sciences et de la societe, September 7-13, 

1983, pp. 38-39 

Patrice Bloch, "Chaussures, artistes et compagnie," 
Beaux-Arts Magazine, no. 9, January 1984, p. 14 

Jerome Sans, "Georges Rousse," Flash Art 
(France), Spring 1984 

Catherine Strasser, "Georges Rousse. Musee 
municipal," Art Press, no. 83, July-August 

1984, p. 66 

Mireille Descombes, "La Magie de Georges 



Rousse," La Tribune de Geneve, September 23, 1984 
Catherine Francblin, Le Quotidien de Paris, 
October 3, 1984 

Christian Caujolle, "Georges Rousse, architecte, 
peintre, photographe," Liberation, October 11, 1984 

Philippe Piguet, "Promenades autour de Beau- 
bourg," Kanal, October 1984 

Catherine Strasser, "Georges Rousse, no escape, 
no tarrying," Artefactum, no. 6, November- 
December 1984, pp. 45-47 

Catherine Flohic, "Georges Rousse: Biographie," 
Eighty, no. 5, November-December 1984. pp. 62-63 

Catherine Strasser, "Resistance," Eighty, no. 5, 
November-December 1984, pp. 33-61 

Markku Valkonnen, "Georges Rousse," Helsingin 
Sanomat, February 19, 1985 

Olivier Cena, "L'Enlumineur de memoire: Les 
Reves ephemeres de Georges Rousse," Telerama, 
May 1, 1985, p. 40 

"Douze Artistes dans I'espace," Art Press, no. 94, 
July-August 1985, pp. 24-25 

Jean Tourangeau. "Georges Rousse, Grail, Montreal," 
Vanguard, vol. 14, September 1985, p. 46 

Luc Vezin, "Telephone graffiti," Art Press, no. 95, 

September 1985, pp. 64-66 

Gilles Daigneault, "Une Oeuvre montrealaise de 

Georges Rousse," Le Devoir (Montreal), October 

18, 1985, p. 6 

Jocelyne Lepage, "Un Drole d'aventurier," 

La Presse (Montreal), October 19, 1985 

"Espaces pieges," Connaissance des Arts, no. 405, 

November 1985, p. 6 

Philippe Dagen, "Georges Rousse, le geometre 

du trompe-l'oeil," Le Monde, January 1, 1986, p. 12 

Mona Thomas, "Georges Rousse," Galeries 
Magazine, no. 11, April 1986, pp. 44-47 
Jocelyne Lupien, "Georges Rousse ou la derobade 
de lanamorphose," Parachute, no. 42, March-May 
1986, pp. 13-15 



115 



58 Untitled (Sans titre). Paris, 1982 
Cibachrome print. 47Vi x 55" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




116 



59 Untitled (Sans titre). Sydney, 1 984 
Cibachrome print, 50 x 60%" 
Collection Bijan Aalam, Paris 




117 



60 Untitled (Sans titre). Paris, 1984 

Cibachrome print mounted on wood, 78% x 102%" 
Collection C.A.P.C. Musee d'Art Contemporain, 
Bordeaux 




118 



61 Untitled (Sans titre). Bercy, 1 985 

Cibachrome print mounted on aluminum, 71 x 94 1 /2" 
Courtesy Farideh Cadot, Paris 




119 



62 Untitled (Sans titre). Rome, 1985 

Cibachrome print mounted on aluminum, 71 x 94 Vz" 
Collection Fonds National d'Art Contemporain, Paris; 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




120 



63 Untitled (Sans titre). Geneva, 1985 

Cibachrome print mounted on aluminum, 71 x 94 Vb" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




121 



64 Untitled (Sans titre). Bercy, 1985 

Cibachrome print mounted on aluminum, 71 x 94 Vi" 
Private Collection 




122 



65 Untitled (Sans titre). Montreal, 1 985 

Cibachrome print mounted on aluminum, 71 x 94 '/>" 
Collection Georges Pompidou Art and Culture 
Foundation, New York 




123 



66 Untitled (Sans titre). Aries, 1 986 

Cibachrome print mounted on aluminum, 

47% x102Vb* 

Collection Musee Reattu, Aries 




124 




125 



Patrick 
Tosani 



To make a photograph means to freeze an instant 
of time. This is what Patrick Tosani accomplishes 
both literally and figuratively in his photographs of 
ice cubes. In an early series dating from 1982-83 
(see cat. no. 67), Tosani uses ice as both physical 
reality and metaphor. Tiny plastic figures posed in 
states of motion— skiing, jumping, diving, dancing, 
mountain-climbing— are immobilized in ice cubes. 
These blocks of ice are thus transformed by sugges- 
tion into mountains, swimming pools or ski slopes, 
and the irregularities of their surfaces impart a dy- 
namism and tactility to their otherwise inert forms. 
The artist photographs the figurines, which are set 
against brightly colored monochromatic backdrops, 
at close range, and enlarges the images to a size of 
120 x 170 centimeters. In so doing, he freezes the 
activity of these small figures. Only the ice shows 
signs of movement, as it begins to melt. Though the 
melting process suggests release for the figurines, 
the act of photographing them has captured them 
in their frozen states forever. And moreover, para- 
doxically, although they are posed as if in motion, 
they are also "frozen" in their plastic form. They 
are suspended in a moment of time. 

The seeming simplicity of Tosani's subjects dis- 
guises more complex problems at hand. The artist 
tells us much about the nature of photography, the 
nature of reality and the relationship between the 
two, using ice as a metaphor. The ice is translucent 
and thus exposes some elements of these frozen 
scenes, yet pockets of opacity disfigure or hide 
parts thereof. Ice is destined to disappear. Exist- 
ence, too, is transitory. Photography can capture 
the ephemeral by suspending time, but the reality 
of photography is fictive: it exposes, but what it 
shows may be only partial and indeed may be false. 



"To record time and release from its hold, if only 
for a moment, fragments of reality which soon will 
also succumb to it, this is the cycle that determines 
. . . the evolution of Patrick Tosani's work."' 

Tosani carries over this idea of reading an image 
into a series of portraits executed in 1984-85 (see 
cat. nos. 71, 72). For this group of works, Tosani 
projects slides of portraits, deformed beyond rec- 
ognition by the out-of-focus lens and diffused light 
of the projector, onto pages of braille. Some of the 
braille characters have been flattened, creating a 
varied surface, and the paper has been given addi- 
tional texture with a coat of paint. Tosani then pho- 
tographs these projected images and presents them 
in the format of a 130 x 100 centimeter print. 

While recognizable generically as portraiture, one 
cannot read any of the features or expressions of 
these faces. The expressivity of these portraits, like 
Francis Bacon's contorted and featureless heads, 
comes from another source, in this instance the 
raised dots. Despite the obliteration of physiog- 
nomy, each face has its own identity and individual- 
ity that is drawn not only from the braille characters, 
but also from the subtle variations in color, grain 
and focus. Tosani is asking us in essence to read 
these features, as one reads a page of writing. He 
thus redefines portraiture as something that goes 
beyond representation and expression to include 
tactility and the world of visual signs. Yet even the 
tactility is undermined: to read braille, we must 
touch it, and this is impossible because the relief 
loses its function as a tactile language on the glossy 
and smooth surface of the photograph. 

In his most recent body of work, Tosani again 
uses water as his medium, but this time in its liquid 
state, as a steady stream of falling rain. In The 



126 



Rain (La Pluie) (cat. no. 73), the artist gives defi- 
nition to the shape of rainfall: it acquires a regu- 
larity, an edge that is impossible to isolate in its 
natural, fluid state. He carries this artifice one step 
further in subsequent works by interrupting the flow 
of water with plexiglass punctuation marks and nu- 
merical signs. The illusion created is that of the 
rain itself forming these symbols, rather than that of 
an intervening object disrupting the pattern of its 
fall. Each picture functions on three levels: the title 
is the literal verbal equivalent of the action in the 
photograph; the photograph serves as the visual 
translation or description of this title; and the pho- 
tograph, finally, stands independently as a work of 
art. For example, in The Rain Between Parentheses 
(La Pluie entre parentheses) (cat. no. 76), the title 
suggests that the word "rain" is bracketed by pa- 
rentheses, and indeed the photograph depicts the 
image of rain in exactly this state. In this play be- 
tween plastic and literary form, the poetry of the 
work emerges. The artist has again captured the 
fugitive in a statement of elegant simplicity. 

1. Jean de Loisy, Patrick Tosani, 1983, unpaginated. 

Biographical Information 

Born in Boissy I'Aillerie, Val d'Oise, September 28, 
1954 

Ecole Speciale d'Architecture, Paris, 1973-79 

Lives and works in Paris 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

Galerie de la Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 
Architectures, June 28-August 26, 1978 
Galerie R.C. des Fosses, Saint Etienne, 
May 7-22, 1982 



Association pour un Lieu de Creation, Paris, 
October 2-24, 1982 

Association Tours-Art Vivant (organizer), France- 
Tours, art actuel: Premiere Biennale d'art con- 
temporain, Centre de Creation Contemporaine, 
Tours, April 22-May 29, 1983. Catalogue with texts 
by Jean-Christophe Ammann, Marie-Claude Beaud, 
Michel Giroud, Giovanni Joppolo, Alain-Julien 
Laferriere, Jean de Loisy and Bernard 
Lamarche-Vadel 

Musee Sainte-Croix, Poitiers, Photographies de la 
collection Bernard Lamarche-Vadel, May-June 

1983. Catalogue with texts by A. Class and 
Bernard Lamarche-Vadel 

Association Base Internationale, Villeurbanne, 
La Nuit, June 1983. Catalogue 
Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, Images fabriquees, February 10- 
March 13, 1983 (Tosani not included in Paris show). 
Catalogue with text by Alain Sayag. Traveled to 
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Nantes. November 4- 
December 23; Musee d'Art Actuel, Hasselt, 
Belgium, June 8-July 8, 1984 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 
L'Art a I'oeuvre, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Angers, 
January 13-February 3, 1984; Espace Graslin, 
Nantes, June 

F.R.A.C. Aquitaine- Midi Pyrenees- Languedoc- 
Roussillon (organizer), Collections, Casa Velaz- 
quez, Madrid, February 18-March 6, 1984; Palacio 
de la Longa, Saragossa, March 31 -April 15; Palau 
Meca, Barcelona, May 22-June 24. Catalogue with 
text by G. Mora 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 
4 Festival de I'image, Collegiale Saint-Pierre, Le 
Mans, October 8-28, 1984. Catalogue with text by 
Jean de Loisy 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 
/ Ateliers internationaux de Fontevraud, Abbaye 
Royale de Fontevraud, October 27-December 1 1 , 

1984. Catalogue with texts by Michel Enrici, Bernard 
Martin et al. 



127 



Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (organizer), La Pho- 
tographie creative. Pavilion des Arts, Paris, Novem- 
ber 24. 1984-January 20, 1985. Catalogue with text 
by Jean-Claude Lemagny 

Musee National d'Art Moderne. Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, Photographies contemporaines en 
France, November 28, 1984-January 27, 1985. Cata- 
logue with texts by Agnes de Gouvion St. Cyr and 
Alain Sayag. Traveled in Yugoslavia, 1985-86 

F.R.A.C. Aquitaine, Bordeaux (organizer), Aux 
Poteaux de couleur, Musee Marzelles. Marmande, 
February 10-March 10, 1985. Catalogue with text by 
Jean-Marie Touratier 

Fondation Cartier, Jouy-en-Josas, Accrochage, May 
1985 

Association Pratiques Publiques, Rennes (organ- 
izer), Portraits de I'artiste, Bibliotheque Inter- 
Universitaire, Rennes, December 3-17, 1985 

Centre National de la Photographie, Paris (organ- 
izer), Identites, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, December 
18, 1985-February 24, 1986. Catalogue with texts by 
Ch. Feline, M. Frizot. S. July and J. Sagne 

Fondation Cartier, Jouy-en-Josas, Sur les murs, 
February 23-May 4, 1986. Catalogue 

Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plas- 
tiques, Paris, F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud 
(organizers), Ateliers internationaux des Pays de la 
Loire, deux ans d'acquisitions, Fondation Nationale 
des Arts Graphiques et Plastiques, Paris, May 7- 
June 8, 1986. Catalogue with text by Mario Toran 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris (organizer), Constructions et fictions, Fonda- 
zione Scientifica, Querini-Stampalia, Venice, June 
20-July 30, 1986; Institut Francais, Naples, October 
1-30. Catalogue with text by Regis Durand 

Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Espace Avant-Premiere, Paris, June 1-26, 1982 

Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, Paris, 
May 25-July 9, 1983; May 30-June 29, 1985 

Association I'Oeil Permanent, Nantes (organizer), 



128 



Patrick Tosani. Palais de la Bourse, Nantes. De- 
cember 15. 1983-January 7, 1984; Musee Municipal 
de La Roche-sur-Yon, February 4-March 13; 
Atheneum and Le Consortium, Dijon, April 17-30; 
Palais des Congres et de la Culture, Le Mans, May 
3-29. Catalogue with text by Jean de Loisy 

Gallery Taka Gi. Nagoya, April 1-20, 1986 
Galerie Christian Laune, Montpellier, May 24- 
June28, 1986 



Selected Bibliography 

Jean de Loisy, "Patrick Tosani: Photographe de 
glacons," Art Press, no. 67, February 1982, p. 35 

Patrice Bloch and Laurent Pesenti. "F.I.A.C, Patrick 
Tosani," Beaux-Arts Magazine, no. 6, October 1983, 
pp. 58-59 

Bernard Blistene, "Patrick Tosani, Galerie Durand- 
Dessert," Flash Art (France), no. 1 , Fall 1983, p. 46 
Carol Rio and Stephanie Taranne, "Premiers Ate- 
liers internationaux d'art vivant," Art Press, no. 88, 
January 1985, p. 60 

Mona Thomas, "Paris: Patrick Tosani," Beaux-Arts 
Magazine, no. 25, June 1985, p. 93 
Elisabeth Vedrenne, "Une Consecration, Patrick 
Tosani," Decoration Internationale, no. 82, June 
1985, p. 10 

Philippe Nottin, "Patrick Tosani, Portraits," Kanal, 
no. 12-13, Summer 1985. p. 44 
Philippe Piguet, "Patrick Tosani: A fleur de peau," 
LArt Vivant, no. 12, Summer 1985, p. 13 
Regis Durand, "Patrick Tosani, Galerie Durand- 
Dessert," Art Press, no. 95, September 1985, 
pp. 68-70 

Regis Durand, "Identites, Desderi au photomaton, 
Palais de Tokyo," Art Press, no. 100, February 1986, 
p. 90 

Jean-Pierre Bordaz, "Montpellier: Patrick Tosani," 
Beaux- Arts Magazine, no. 36, June 1986, p. 94 
Philippe Piguet, Montpellier, Patrick Tosani," 
L'Oeil, no. 371, June 1986, p. 86 



67 The Diver (Le Plongeur). 1 982 
Color photograph, 47 1 /2 x 67" 
Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 




129 



68 The White Arenas (Les Arenes blanches). 1983 

Color photograph, 47V2 x 67" 

Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 






Mil 




130 



69 The Temple (Le Temple). 1 983 
Color photograph, 47 1 /2 x 67" 
Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 



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132 



70 Palace (Palais). 1983 

Color photograph, 47 1 /2 x 67" 
Collection Michel Makarius, Paris 



133 



71 Portrait No. 1. 1984 

Color photograph, 51 Vs x 39 3 /a" 

Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 





134 



72 Portrait No. 3. 1 984 

Color photograph, 51 Va x 39%" 

Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 

Paris 




135 



73 The Rain (La Pluie). 1 986 

Cibachrome print, 47V2 x 62 V2" 

Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 

Paris 




136 



74 The Rain Plus (La Pluie plus). 1 986 
Cibachrome print, 47 1 /2 x 621/2 " 
Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 




137 



75 The Rain Comma (La Pluie virgule). 1 986 
Cibachrome print, 47 1 /2 x 62 Vi" 
Courtesy Galene Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 




138 



76 The Rain Between Parentheses (La Pluie entre 
parentheses). 1986 
Cibachrome print, 47 1 /2 x 62V2" 
Courtesy Galerie Liliane et Michel Durand-Dessert, 
Paris 




139 



Daniel 
Tremblay 



Daniel Tremblay died tragically, the victim of an 
automobile accident, on April 9, 1985, at the age of 
thirty-five. Although the artistic legacy he left is 
comparatively small, it is nonetheless rich in qual- 
ity, and significant in terms of the impact it has had 
and continues to have on artists of his generation. 
Tremblay's oeuvre partakes of an aesthetic prev- 
alent among the emerging artists in France today, 
which focuses on the "cult of the object." The work 
of these artists manifests close affinities with New 
British Sculpture, whose adherents, among them 
Tony Cragg, Bill Woodrow and Richard Deacon, use 
cast-off industrial or domestic objects or materials 
in inventive combinations to create sculptural 
images. Tremblay's familiarity with this aesthetic 
was gained first-hand since he spent two years in 
England studying at the Royal College of Art. Yet 
despite similarities in orientation, Tremblay ap- 
proached and manipulated the object in a strikingly 
original and individual manner, as do his contem- 
poraries. What he shared with them was a custom 
of referring to and reinterpreting a variety of twen- 
tieth-century precedents for using the object in art. 
In this regard, Marcel Duchamp's elevation of com- 
mon objects to the status of art in his Readymade 
sculptures was of pivotal importance to Tremblay 
and continues to be so to his peers. The same is 
true of the redemption and consequent magnifica- 
tion of the importance of discarded industrial ma- 
terials of Les Nouveaux RGalistes; the Surrealists' 
incongruous juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated 
objects; the Pop Artists' passion for the banal image 
and the elevated position they accorded everyday 
or commonplace objects; the Minimalists' use of in- 
dustrial or mass-produced materials; and the Arte 
Povera group's tendency toward mythologization. 



Tremblay used readily obtainable materials, for 
example slate, linoleum, rubber, marble and syn- 
thetic grass, in tandem with unexpected objects 
such as rakes, wooden ducks or other birds, toy 
airplanes and fake pearls. Although the materials 
do not have histories of uses, they are nonetheless 
invested with meaning by virtue of their unique 
properties. In combining them to create the work of 
art. Tremblay transformed them through the succes- 
sion of poetic associations that arise from their 
functions, materials, forms, colors and textures. The 
suggestive qualities of the materials rather than the 
objects themselves were particularly compelling for 
him. For example, he associated the blackness of 
rubber with night, and used it as a ground for 
images of dreams and sleep. At the same time, he 
was attracted by the matte aspect of its surface, 
and played off this quality by studding it with pearls, 
whose luster and preciousness provide a startling 
counterpoint to the dull finish and crudity of the 
rubber. The way the rubber both absorbs and re- 
flects light is another property of this essentially 
anti-aesthetic material that the artist found irre- 
sistible. Tremblay continually manipulated the oscil- 
lation between the concrete reality of his objects 
and materials and the new identity that they ac- 
quired through transformation. 

Although Tremblay produced three-dimensional 
works, he considered himself primarily a sculptor 
of bas-relief. He also executed installations, made 
in direct relation to particular spaces and their ar- 
chitecture, but in this context he considered space 
a material rather than a place: "An installation is a 
game where space intervenes as a material with its 
own potentials which I try to discover." 1 

What is most striking about Tremblay's oeuvre, 



140 



no matter what the chosen medium, is its poetic 
groundwork. He contended that the simplest state- 
ment could be the most eloquent; indeed, his artis- 
tic origins were in Minimalism, and although his 
course subsequently deviated significantly from that 
idiom, his choice of subject and manipulation of 
form retained a simple and straightforward quality, 
not reductive, yet displaying an economy of means. 
In some ways, his images read as signs or symbols 
—a crescent shape evokes the moon, for example. 
But the image's associations belie, even transcend 
its apparent artlessness. The crescent moon is 
loaded with an expressive poetry that is far-reach- 
ing, just as his images of sleep, a kiss or a starry 
night have metaphoric possibilities that extend be- 
yond the realm of mere representation. Tremblay 
spoke of the transcendence of his objects: "I would 
like ... to find in objects, in materials, those aspects 
that reveal another vision of things, more poetic, 
that is, by slightly modifying them without changing 
their original function, to open their other emotional 
dimensions. For example the rake continues to rake, 
but associated with the stars, it provokes other rev- 
eries that suddenly become evident. I would like my 
works to be moving." 2 

In the course of the years 1981 to 1985, Trem- 
blay's oeuvre evolved in an increasingly abstract 
and simplified direction. His earlier works relied 
more on a dialogue between the parts that made up 
the composition, and as such had a stronger narra- 
tive quality. Just prior to his death, the artist exhib- 
ited a series of works executed in rubber, which 
borrowed from his established repertory of images- 
profiles, reclining figures, starry nights. Here, Trem- 
blay carved deep crevices out of the thick rubber 
mats to reveal the blue, pink or yellow colored lay- 



ers that were buried within, and to create the simple 
and evocative contours of the pieces. In retrospect, 
the peaceful reclining profile of Pink Moon (Rose 
Lune) (cat. no. 84) or the rubber head resting on a 
wood support with the moon above of Untitled (Sans 
titre), 1985 (cat. no. 86), seem to be omens as if 
Tremblay had presaged his own death. They reveal 
the artist's sensitivity to the more sober and tragic 
side of life, which always seems to lie beneath the 
surfaces of his depictions of innocent sleep or his 
nighttime skies that evoke the cosmos and the infi- 
nite. If the playfulness of his images is at times 
reminiscent of nursery rhymes, there is also an 
uneasy feeling, a more serious dimension to these 
flights of fantasy. 

One critic, writing on Tremblay's work, said, "Who 
still believes that the proliferation of industrial 
objects has killed the poetry of things?" 3 This state- 
ment captures the essence of the artist's accom- 
plishment, and as such could serve as his epitaph. 

1 . Soyons serieux, 1 985, p. 42. 

2. True ettroc,legons de choses, 1983, p. 104. 

3. Strasser, Halle Sud, 1985, p. 1. 



Biographical Information 

Born in Angers, Anjou, March 7, 1950 

Royal College of Art, London, 1977-80 

Grant, Henry Moore Foundation, London, 1978 

Teacher, sculpture, Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Mul- 
house, France, 1980-85 

Died in Angers, April 9, 1985 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, XI Bien- 



141 



nale de Paris, September 22-November 2, 1980. 

Catalogue 

A.R.C.. Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 

Ateliers 81 1 '82, November 26, 1981 -January 3, 1982. 

Catalogue with texts by Suzanne Page and Didier 

Semin 

Institut Culturel Italien, Paris, 1981 

Chartreuse de Villeneuve-les-Avignon, De la cave 
au grenier, July 10-August 7, 1982 

A.R.C., Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
True et troc, legons de choses, January 27-March 6, 
1983. Catalogue with texts by Catherine Ferbos, 
Jean-Hubert Martin, Suzanne Page and Beatrice 
Parent 

Association Tours-Art Vivant (organizer), France- 
Tours, art actuel: Premiere Biennale dart contempo- 
rain, Centre de Creation Contemporaine, Tours, 
April 22-May 29, 1983. Catalogue with texts by Jean- 
Christophe Ammann, Marie-Claude Beaud. Michel 
Giroud, Giovanni Joppolo, Alain-Julien Laferriere, 
Bernard Lamarche-Vadel and Jean de Loisy 

A.F.A.A. (Association Frangaise d'Action Artistique), 
Paris (organizer), Arte Frances Contemporaneo, 
Museo Sivori, Buenos Aires, July 13-August 3, 1983; 
Museo Nacional de las Artes Plasticas y Visuales, 
Montevideo, August 10-September 4; Museo del 
Banco Central, Lima, September 24-October 20; 
Casa de la Cultura, La Paz, November 
Art Prospect, Paris (organizer), Reseau Art 83, 
posters and billboards commissioned for public 
display in France, August 1-15, 1983 

Fondation Elf Aquitaine (organizer), Paris, Musee 

du Trocadero, Paris, 1983 

Fisher Art Gallery, University of Southern California, 

Los Angeles, French Spirit Today, March 19-April 

21, 1984. Catalogue with texts by Jean-Louis Fro- 

ment and Catherine Strasser. Traveled to Museum 

of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, California, June 16- 

August 3 

F.R.A.C. Pays de la Loire, Fontevraud (organizer), 

/ Ateliers internationaux de Fontevraud, Abbaye 



142 



Royale de Fontevraud, October 27-December 1 1 , 
1984. Catalogue with texts by Michel Enrici, 
Bernard Martin et al. 

F.R.A.C. Aquitaine, Bordeaux (organizer), Lumieres 
et sons. Chateau de Biron, Dordogne, June 23- 
September 22. 1984 

Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery. University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, Manipulated Reality: Image 
and Object in New French Sculpture. February 5- 
March 24, 1 985. Catalogue with texts by Jean-Louis 
Froment, Pierre Restany and Edith A. Tonelli 

Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain, Lyon, Soyons 
serieux, February 28-May 14, 1985. Catalogue with 
texts by Bernadette Bost, Alain Charre, Michel 
Nuridsany, Catherine Strasser et al. 

Atelier des Enfants, Centre Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, Objets en derive, 1985 

Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plas- 
tiques, Paris, Creations pour un F.R.A.C. (Pays de 
la Loire), April 29-June 8, 1986 

Selected One-Man Exhibitions 

Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris, Un Regard autre, 
September 15-October 15, 1981; June 17-July 8, 
1983; Sculptures recentes, March 22-April 20, 1985 

Musee de Toulon, Daniel Tremblay, December 2, 
1982-January 9, 1983. Catalogue with texts by 
Marie-Claude Beaud and Guillemette Coulomb 



Selected Bibliography 

Ma'iten Bouisset, "Les Jeunes au banc d'essai," 
Le Matin, October 6, 1981 

Catherine Strasser, "Galerie Farideh Cadot, un 
regard autre," Art Press, no. 53, November 1981, 
p. 38 

Jean-Marc Poinsot, "New Painting in France." Flash 
Art (International), no. 108, Summer 1982, pp. 40-44 

Jean de Loisy, "New French Painting," Flash Art 
(International), no. 110, January 1983, pp. 44-48 

Daniel Bombert, "Daniel Tremblay, Bernard 



Faucon: Musee de Toulon." Art Press, no. 67, 
February 1983, p. 49 

Xavier Girard, "Neue Figuration in Frankreich," 
Kunstforum International, vol. 59, March 1983, 
pp. 39-47 

Mai'ten Bouisset, "L'Un est anglais, I'autre pas," 
Le Matin, June 1 7, 1 983, p. 38 

Franck Maubert, "Daniel Tremblay," L'Express, 
June 24-30, 1983, p. 160 

Hans-Peter Schwerfel, "Malen macht wieder 
spass," Art, Das Kunst Magazin, no. 6, June 1983, 
pp. 84-93 

Patrice Bloch and Laurent Pesenti, "Daniel Trem- 
blay: Accumulations oniriques," Les Nouvelles 
Litteraires des arts, des sciences et de la societe, 
September 14-20, 1983, p. 54 
Xavier Girard, "Reseau art 83/art prospect," Art 
Press, no. 76, December 1983, p. 60 
Anne Tronche, "Daniel Tremblay," Opus Interna- 
tional-83, Winter 1983, pp. 22-23 

Catherine Strasser, "Histoires de sculpture/ 
Lumieres et sons," Art Press, no. 84, September 
1984, p. 47 

"Fondation Jourdon, I'hotel revisite," City Maga- 
zine International, no. 6, December 1984 

Henri-Frangois Debailleux, "Paris: Daniel Trem- 
blay," Beaux-Arts Magazine, no. 23, April 1985, 
p. 87 

Catherine Strasser, "Daniel Tremblay, Mirage," 
Halle Sud, no. 8, April 1985, p. [1] 

Christian Schlatter, "Materials Gone Crazy," Flash 
Art (International), April-May 1985, pp. 52-56 

Anne Dagbert, "Daniel Tremblay, Galerie Farideh 
Cadot," Art Press, no. 92, May 1985, pp. 64-66 

Catherine Strasser, "Daniel Tremblay, apparence 
d'espace," Art Press, no. 94, July-August 1 985, p. 27 

Catherine Grout, "Sculpture in France," Flash Art 
(International), no. 125, December 1985-January 
1986, pp. 66-69 



143 



77 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 983 
Brushes and sickle, 24 x 54%" 
Collection Bijan Aalam, Paris 




144 



78 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 981 

Installation, charcoal on cardboard with paper stars 
Collection Volvo-France 




145 



79 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 982 

Artificial turf, wooden stool and plastic goose with 
acrylic paint, 1 18% x 78%" 
Collection Musee de Toulon 




146 



80 Untitled (Sans titre). 1981 

Bristles and plastic bird with acrylic paint, 19%" 

diameter 

Collection Musee de Toulon 




147 



81 Crows (Corbeaux). 1983 

Linoleum and rhinestones mounted on wood with 
two crows. 23 5 /e x 59" 

Collection Ethan J. & Sherry Remez Wagner, 
Sacramento, California 




148 



82 Piece of Night (Morceau de nuit). 1 984 
Rubber and pearls, 17% x 41 V* " 
Collection Jean-Francois and Frangoise Echard, Paris 




149 



83 Evening Butterflies (Papillons du soir). 1 985 
Rubber, 28% x 71 3 /e" 
Collection Marie-Claude Beaud 




150 



84 Pink Moon (Rose Lune). 1 985 
Rubber, 28% x 71 %" 
Courtesy Galerie Farideh Cadot, Paris 




151 



85 Moon and its Reflection (Lune et son retlet). 1 985 
Installation, charcoal and bags of charcoal 
Courtesy Galerle Farideh Cadot, Paris 



II 



HI! I 




152 



86 Untitled (Sans titre). 1 985 

Rubber and acrylic paint on wood, 47Vi x23 5 /s XI6V2" 
Private Collection 




153 



Photographic 
Credits 



Color 

Martine Aballea: cat. nos. 2, 4 

Hughes Bigo: cat. no. 9 

Pierre Carbuccia: cat. no. 20 

Bernard Faucon: cat. nos. 33-38 

Yves Gallois: cat. nos. 13, 14, 17, 18, 23 

Francois Lagarde: cat. no. 19 

Andre Morin, Paris: cat. nos. 29, 30, 32, 40, 44-48, 

77, 79. 83, 84 

Andre Pelle: cat. nos. 49, 52, 53, 56 
Georges Rousse: cat. nos. 60, 63-66 
Patrick Tosani: cat. nos. 67, 70, 74 

Black and White 

Martine Aballea: cat. nos. 1 , 3, 5-8 

Donage: cat. nos. 10, 11 

Galerie Arlogos, Nantes: cat. no. 12 

Yves Gallois: cat. nos. 15, 16, 21, 22 

Roberto Manzotti: cat. no. 57 

Andre Morin, Paris: cat. nos. 26-28, 31, 39, 41-43, 

78, 80-82, 85, 86 

Andre Pelle: cat. nos. 50, 51 , 54, 55 
Georges Rousse: cat. nos. 58, 59, 61, 62 
Ivan Dalla Tana: cat. nos. 24, 25 
Patrick Tosani: cat. nos. 68, 69, 71-73, 75, 76 



154 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION 

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STAFF Vivian Endicott Barnett, Curator; Lisa Dennison, Susan B. Hirschfeld. Assistant Curators; Carol Fuerstein, Editor; Sonja 
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Louise Averill Svendsen. Curator Emeritus 

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Fuerstein, Preparator; David M. Veater. Assistant Preparator; William Smith, Ani Gonzalez Rivera, Preparation Assistants; 
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LIFE MEMBERS Jean K. Benjamin, Irving Blum, Mr. and Mrs. B. Gerald Cantor, Eleanor, Countess Castle Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. Barrie M. 
Damson, Mr. and Mrs. Werner Dannheisser, Jacqueline Dryfoos, William C. Edwards, Jr., Donald M. Feuerstein, Mr. and 
Mrs. Andrew P. Fuller, Agnes Gund, Susan Morse Hilles, Mr. and Mrs. Morton L. Janklow, Mr. and Mrs. Donald L. Jonas, 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour M. Klein, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Lawson-Johnston, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Liberman, Rook McCulloch, 
Mr. and Mrs, Thomas M. Messer, Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Mnuchin, Mr. and Mrs. Irving Moskovitz, Elizabeth Hastings 
Peterfreund, Mrs. Samuel I. Rosenman, Clifford Ross, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew M. Saul, Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph B. Schulhof, 
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INSTITUTIONAL Alcoa Foundation, Atlantic Richfield Foundation, The Owen Cheatham Foundation, Exxon Corporation, Robert Wood Johnson Jr. 
PATRONS Charitable Trust, Knoll International, The Kresge Foundation, L. A. W. Fund, Robert Lehman Foundation, The Andrew Mellon 

Foundation, Mobil Corporation, Montedison Group, Philip Morris Incorporated, Regione Veneto, United Technologies Corporation 

Institute of Museum Services, National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities, New York State 
Council on the Arts 



155 



Exhibition 86/9 

4,500 copies of this catalogue, designed by Malcolm 
Grear Designers, Inc., and typeset by Schooley 
Graphics/Craftsman Type, have been printed by 
Eastern Press in September 1 986 for the Trustees 
of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation on the 
occasion of the exhibition Angles of Vision: French 
Art Today, 1986 Exxon International Exhibition. 



Solomon R Guggenheim Museum Library 



156 



III i 1 

011184 



N6848.5.C66 D46 1986 
Angles of vision : 
Dennison, Lisa. 
011184 



DATE 



T 



BORROWER'S NAME 



DATE 



N6848.5.C66 D46 1986 
Angles of vision : 
Dennison, Lisa 
011184